発達研究 Vol. 9


1. 初期記憶の研究 (2)
   記憶心像と自己対象化

国際基督教大学     藤 永   保

A Study of the first memory (2)
Objectified self in the memory image

International Christian University FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 This is the second report of a series of studies on the first memory. Some results of the first study suggested that distinctiveness of visual images representing the content of the first memory seems to change rapidly between the ages of 3 and 4 years old. If so, subject persons experiencing the earlier first memory can be expected to have the clearer visual images depicting the details of their first memories. This study is designed to use almost the same questionnaire of the first one asking the Ss to describe verbally their memorizing ages of the observed first memory, its reliability and validity, and its contents and emotional background, and together to supplement a new item asking to depict pictures as minute as possible representing their first memories. In addition, questions to ask from what ages to be possible to remember one's own past experiences and how far to believe the possibility of reality of so called birth memory.
 Some interesting results are as follows : The hypotheses insisting the qualitative change of the representation system or encoding system creating the first memory between 3 and 4 years old was partially supported. Very interesting phenomena to be called “objective self” was found out in some depicted pictures of Ss' first memory. It seemed to be a result or symbol of later schematization consisting of both Ss' own experiences and their father-mothers'supplementing information. If so, memory images without objectified self could be purer representation of the first memory.
 The possibility of reality of birth memory was denied by almost all of the Ss.

Key words : the first memory, questionnaire survey, self in memory image, drawing method to study memory image, change between 3 and 4 years old


2. 数量概念の発達に関する縦断的研究 (1)

お茶の水女子大学    渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学    高 木 真理子
国際基督教大学      荻 原 美 文
国際基督教大学      藤 永   保

A Longitudinal Study of Development of Child's Numerical Concept(1)

Ochanomizu Univerersity       WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu Univerersity       TAKAGI, Mariko
International Christian University  OGIHARA, Mifumi
International Christian University  FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The purpose of this research is to clarify how infants acquire numerical concept or understanding and deal with such abstract matters. To accomplish the purpose, a longitudinal study from children's infantile stage as early as possible is adopted in this research. The research is based on experimental observations and reports from the child's mother, and focused not merely on numerical matters but on various fields of developmental change.
 Concerning resent tendency that many children are exposed to education from their infantile stage, subjects in this study are selected from infants who are under such education, e.g. learning in a K-system class. These subjects enable us to follow numerical concept or understanding acquiring process of infants under plentiful intellectual stimuli.
 As a first report of the continuous research, four children's developmental changes for three to four months, who are from age one to two or three, are presented in this paper.

Key words : numerical concept or understanding, longitudinal study, cognitive development, infants, early education


3. 情動表出の制御と対人関係に関する発達的研究

東京大学          平 林 秀 美
白百合女子大学      柏 木 惠 子  

Development of emotion regulation and interpersonal relationship

University of Tokyo   HIRABAYASHI, Hidemi
Shirayuri College    KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The purpose of this study was to examine the development of children's emotion regulation and also to examine the relationship between emotion regulation and interpersonal relationship.
 Two investigations, story method to assess the degree of regulation of emotional expression and sociometoric test to examine children's social evaluation from peers, were carried out. Subjects were male and female students in 3rd., 5th., and 7th. grade. The stories that were concerned with the regulation of positive emotional expression and of negative emotional expression presented to the students.
 Main findings were as follows. (a)The regulation of positive emotional expression increased with grade, on the other hand, the regulation of negative emotional expression didn't show consistent developmental trends. (b)The responses to stories which required subjects to regulate negative emotional feelings were differentiated according to different situations in older age groups. (c)Children who were competent of regulation of emotional expression with self-protective motives were rated low by peers. This study suggested that the degree of regulation of emotional expression seemed to be closely related with interpersonal relationship to some extent.

Key words : emotion regulation, emotional expression, social evaluation from peers, self-protective motives, prosocial motives


4. 英国在住の日本人就学前幼児の異文化学習
  ―社会的場面に於ける「自己制御」の発達の日英比較―
   結果と考察

ロンドン大学    佐 藤 淑 子

Culture learning of Japanese pre-school children staying in England
―Comparative study on the development of ‘self-regulation’ between England and Japan―

University of London   SATO, Yoshiko

 In my previous report (1991), I made a research proposal of a study comparing the development of “self-regulation” in the following three sample groups : Japanese pre-school children in London, English pre-school children in London, Japanese pre-school children in Tokyo.
Subjects : 90 mother-child pairs (45 boys, 45 girls) each sampled from the following three groups : Japanese in London, English in London, Japanese in Tokyo.
Methods :
 1) Picture Self-Regulation Test (PSRT) for pre-school children in three sample groups.
 2) A multiple choice questionnaire for mothers in three sample groups : evaluation of and feed back to self-assertive and self-inhibitory behavior of their children.
Results :
 1) Influence of English culture upon the development of self-regulation of Japanese pre-school children staying in London.
  a. Negative correlation was found between length of U.K. stay and CSISCORE (Child Self-Inhibition Score).
  b. Negative correlation was found between English speaking ability of mother and CSISCORE.
  c. Positive correlation was found between sleeping arrangement at the age of 6 (sleeping separately from parents) and CSASCORE (Child Self-Assertion Score).
 2) Comparison of CSASCORE and CSISCORE among three sample groups : Japanese pre-school children in London (JL), English pre-school children in London (EL), Japanese pre-school children in Tokyo (JT).
 As for the self-inhibitory dimension, English pre-school children scored lowest among three sample groups, as was predicted. As for the Self-assertive dimension, Japanese pre-school children in London scored lowest among three sample groups. Especially, Japanese pre-school boys in London scored significantly lower compared to Japanese pre-school boys in Tokyo.
 Contrary to my prediction, English pre-school children scored lower in CSASCORE than Japanese pre-school children in Tokyo. The appropriateness of applying PSRT cross-cultural is discussed.
 Cultural difference was greater than sex difference in both self-assertive and self-inhibitory dimension. The result of mothers' questionnaire will be reported next time.

Key words : culture learning, self-regulation (self-assertion, self-inhibition), preschool children, social development, comparative study (England-Japan), mother-child relations


5. 女性における職業的達成とその環境要因に関する研究

白百合女子大学      岡 崎 奈美子 
白百合女子大学      柏 木 惠 子 

Professional Achievement and Environmental factors in Women

Shirayuri College   OKAZAKI, Namiko
Shirayuri College   KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The purpose of this study was to examined the women's professional achievement in relation to its environmental factors.
 The subjects were more than 50 years who have had professions, married and having children. Deep interview and questionnaires were administered to the subjects in order to assess subject's familial background, their own opinions on sex-role, career and so on and behavioral characteristic.
 Main findings were as follows.
 1) Sex differentiated disciplines were not given to the subjects both from fathers and mothers.
 2) The unique reason why they have had professions was that they thought having job was completely natural even for women.
 3) Their husband had progressive opinions on sex role and they provided psychological support to their wives.

Key words : woman, achievement, profession, discipline


6. 自立に関する概念的考察
  ―青年・成人及び女性を中心として―

白百合女子大学      福 島 朋 子

Theoretical Study about Independence
―Especially in Adult and Women―

Shirayuri College  FUKUSHIMA, Tomoko

 The aims of this article were to review the previous researches on independence and then to present future research directions on independence from sociocultural life span view points.
 Historically, independence was assumed to be the polar trait of dependence. Developmental examinations accumulated from early childhood to adulthood revealed that independence and dependence were not polar concepts, but rather development of independence would be based on inter-dependent relationships with important persons. Theoretical considerations also proposed the idea that individuality (independence) and relatedness (dependence) were to be integrated in development process. Sex differences in development of independence were discussed in relation to cultural and social factors. Several domains of independence such economic, social, emotional, and so on were emphasized to be discriminated from life span point of view.
 Finally, developmental research on independence in women were pointed out to be emprioally examined in socio-cultural contexts, including sex role, career pattern, family constellation, and so on.

Key words : review, independence, relatedness, adult, women


7. 学習意欲と原因帰属に関する国際比較研究
  ―CAMIによる調査 (中間報告)―

白百合女子大学      唐 澤 真 弓
白百合女子大学      宮 下 孝 広
白百合女子大学      東     洋

Agency, Control, and Means-Ends Beliefs about School performance in Japanese Children

Shirayuri College  KARASAWA, Mayumi
Shirayuri College  MIYASHITA, Takahiro
Shirayuri College  AZUMA, Hiroshi

 This study examined the development of school performance-related agency, control, and means-ends beliefs and their link with academic performance in Japanese elementary school children (grades 2-6 N=818) using the “Control, Agency and Means-ends Interview (CAMI)”. An original matched study was conducted in Germany. In this study we demonstrated that children's questionnaire responses reflected the distinction between those three beliefs. School performance was measured by math and verbal grades. Overall, the basic logic of CAMI also fits Japanese means-ends beliefs, control and agency beliefs. However, several striking differences were found : (a) generally, Japanese children have lower level of these CAMI scores. (b) In Japan the mean scores of Agency beliefs lower than those in Germany. (c) the mean score of means-ends beliefs for “teacher” is particularly low in Japan. (d) as a factor analyses, the concept of luck in Japan appears to differ from the concept in Western cultures. (e) it is more difficult for Japanese children to separate Control and Agency-attributes beliefs. These results shows the differences of school system and beliefs related to school performance between Japan and Germany.

Key words : Cross-cultural comparison, self-efficacy beliefs, control beliefs, means-ends beliefs, school achievement


8. 音楽的発達過程の研究 (その2)
  ―音楽大学生と一般女子大生の比較研究−

甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫
甲南女子大学     三 雲 真理子

A study on the process of musical development (2)
―Musical development of students in music college and women's college―

Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao
Konan Women's University   MIKUMO, Mariko

 Seventy students of music college and 104 students in women's college were required to fill a questionnaire on their musical development. The questionnaire included their age of starting instrumental learning, their initiative in daily practice, the first experience of musical emotion, and experience of KARAOKE performance. Results showed that with few exception, they started instrumental learning at 5 years old in average. Remarkable differences were found between students in music college and women's college in their musical development.

Key words : musical development, musical training, music cognition


9. 管楽器の音色の色彩的イメージの多次元尺度法による分析

甲南女子大学       三 雲 真理子
甲南女子大学       梅 本 堯 夫

Colored Hearing :
Associations between Color and Timbre of Wind Instruments
―Analysis of Multidimensional Scaling―

Konan Women's University   MIKUMO, Mariko
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 In this study, colored hearing based on the timbre of wind instruments was investigated. When the timbre of each instrument (Oboe, Trombone, Clarinet, Horn, Flute, Trumpet, Saxophone, and Tuba) was presented, three groups of subjects (elementary school children, junior high school students, and senior high school and university students) were instructed to rate their color image on color-rating scale, seeing the samples of sixteen colors, and were also instructed to rate their image of timbre on 7-point adjective scales. The score were analyzed in a multi-dimensional scaling method and multiple regression analysis to investigate the association between the colored hearing and the verbal image of timbre. The results showed that many elementary school children imaged various different colors even when they were hearing the timbre of one instrument, and the color images were not common but individual. ; As the subjects' ages increased, their color images and impressions for the timbre of each instrument were gradually common and stable.

Key words : colored hearing, timbre, wind instrument


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