発達研究 Vol. 8


T 原 著
1. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (]V) 優秀児の指導者に対する質問紙とインタビュー

お茶の水女子大学        高木(佐藤)真理子
お茶の水女子大学        渡 辺 千 歳
国際基督教大学          藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children having high performance on Mathematics
(13) Questionnaire and Interview survey with their K-system Teachers

Ochanomizu University         TAKAGI (SATO), Mariko
Ochanomizu University          WATANABE, Chitose
International Christian University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In this study, we carried out a questionnaire and interview survey to the teachers in some K-system classrooms. The first purpose is to clarify the characteristics of the pre-school children who have high performance on mathematics. The second purpose is to clarify the relation between personality traits and high performance on mathematics. The third purpose is to survey the actional state of education in some K-system classrooms.

Key words : gifted children, early education, education of mathematics, personality traits of the gifted


2. 女子短大生のけいこごと観と早期英才教育への関心

お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
国際基督教大学       藤 永   保

Attitudes of female junior college students on accomplishments education or practices in infancy and early education

Ochanomizu University         WATANABE, Chitose
International Christian University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 This questionnaire survey has two purposes ;
In part-1, it was aimed to clarify opinions about accomplishments education or practices in infancy. Female junior college students were asked to answer a self-made questionnaire. The result showed that playing piano was the most popular accomplishments for Japanese girls. Becoming mothers, Ss would hope to get their assumed daughters to learn piano playing and English conversation from infancy. On the contrary, they would hope to get their sons to learn swimming and English conversation.
In part-2, other female junior college students were asked their attitudes towards the early childhood education and special education for gifted children from infancy. It was found that they had some positive attitudes on early and gifted education on the whole. Some subjects were very interested in it.

Key words : accomplishments for Japanese children, early childhood education, gifted education, female attitudes on education, gender differences


3. 初期記憶の研究 (1)
  ―年齢による特徴の推移―

国際基督教大学      藤 永   保

A Study of the first memory (1)
Relationship between its memorized ages and features

International Christian University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The first memory is one of the most typical phenomena of human memory observed in natural contexts. Nevertheless, it offers us some not only interesting but also important questions. For example, whether its earliest age limit exists or not, where it can be stored, how it must be encoded, or what conditions or factors of early experiences are necessary and enough to memorize them, etc, etc. The answers of these questions could be milestones to lead us a final question of how the human memory develops.
 This is a preliminary work of a series of studies to clarify above questions. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey is performed to the 65 Ss, mainly female university students. Main items of the questionnaire are ages of observed first memory, its reliability and validity, and its contents and emotional backgrounds.
 One of the most interesting results is that distinctiveness of visual images representing the content of the first memory seems to change urgently between the ages of 3 and 4 years old. This change may be due to the development of language function.

Key words : the first memory, questionnaire survey, change between 3 and 4 years, language function, visual image


4. 日本人の子どものアメリカの学校への適応について
  ―心理人類学的見地より―

白百合女子大学(繁多研究室)      山 本 敬 子

How Japanese Children adapt themselves to American Schools
―Anthropological & Psychological Approach―

Shirayuri College    YAMAMOTO, Keiko

 The objective of this study is to introduce eight cases of Japanese children's adaptation to American schools, to clarify the individual process of adaptation, and to examine interrelation of determinants which differentiate the speed of adaptation.
 The objective is accomplished through natural observations of the subjects who are in both pre- and concrete operational stages, and through interviews with their American teachers and mothers.
 Most research work on such adaptation were conducted from statistical and sociological perspectives, focusing on children who are in the concrete operational stage. However, this study picks up, for analyses of adaptation processes of the subjects, determinants including ‘culture’, ‘sex’, and ‘personality’ which interrelate each other and contextually function inside of children. Furthermore, this study gives an emphasis on ‘cultural elements’ rooted in a child's socialization process which turn out to be a crucial issue in the speed of adaptation.

Key words : Culture and Personality, Cross-Cultural Difference in Early Socialization, Ethno-psychology of Japanese, Identity-Conflict, Subjective Consciousness or Reactions, Inter-Subjectivity


5. 思春期から成人にわたる心理的自立
  ―自立尺度の作成及び発達的検討―

白百合女子大学      福 島 朋 子

Psychological Independence from Adolescence to adulthood
―Construction of Psychological Independence Scale and Developmental Changes of Independence―

Shirayuri College   FUKUSHIMA, Tomoko

 The purpose of this study is to construct a scale for psychological independence and to examine the process of developmental changes from adolescence to adulthood by using this scale. Based on the data analysis of open-ended questionnaire, the items were collected. Psychological independence was hypothesized to be classified into two aspects, Mental Independence and Social Independence. Data were collected from 102 junior high school students, 122 high school students, 182 college students and 147 adults, and Mental Independence Scale/Social Independence Scale were constructed. Four factors <Autonomous self> <Responsibility> <Psychological separation> <Reliance relationship with parents> in Mental Independence Scale and two factors <Conciliation> <Establishment of friendship> in Social Independence Scale were identified.
 The results indicated that : 1) Scores of Mental Independence Scale and Social Independence Scale showed a tendency to increase from adolescence to adulthood : 2) some differences between sexes were found in the development trends : and 3) Mental Independence Scale was related to Social Independence Scale in all age levels. From the results, it was concluded that Independence in adolescence developed gradually along with social relationship with others.

Key words : Psychological Independence, Scale, Development from Adolescence to Adulthood, Sex Differences


6. 言語表現の思考過程における役割

東京大学          中 原 裕 之
白百合女子大学      鈴 木 高 士

The role of language expression in the thinking process

University of Tokyo   NAKAHARA, Hiroyuki
Shirayuri College    SUZUKI, Takashi

 This article treats the problem of the relation between overt expression and mental representation. Classical computationalists assume that thinking process can be regarded as the operation of well-structured representation and that this process can be studied separately from the process of converting (expression-representation and representation-expression). Therefore, they have seldom studied the process of converting. Recent controversy between classical computationalists and situationists suggests significance of studies of the converting process.
 Conversation analysis presented in this article shows that the converting process is fairly complex and that this complexity is the major factor that characterizes thinking process. We consider this fact suggesting the invalidity of some assumptions underlying many classical computationalists studies. Finally, we point out the most important character of thinking process that should be investigated, based on the physical symbolic system hypothesis.

Key words : thinking process, expression, converting process, physical symbolic system, situationists


7. マス・コミュニケーションにおける女性・母親
  ― 「婦人公論」 の記事を中心とした検討―

放送大学          中 村 くみ子
白百合女子大学     柏 木 惠 子

Women in Journalism
―Content analysis of Fujin Kohron―

The University of Air   NAKAMURA, Kumiko
Shirayuri College     KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 This report was aimed to clarify the changes of status of women in journalism from 1946 to 1990.
 The articles in Fujin Kohron, one of the best selling and the oldest women's monthly magazines, were examined mainly by content analysis. The articles were classified into seven categories ; women's life style, women and work, marriage and divorce, family, husband and wife, love and sex and mecallanious.
 The distributions of articles into 7 categories from 1960 to 1990 suggest us several shifts during the period, which reflect changes of editing policies. Fujin Kohron was originally regarded as an opinion leader for women, however, Fujin Kohron is now changing toward one of the popular and inward-looking magazine in order to maintain mass-readers.

Key words : Women, Fujin Kohron, journalism, content analysis


8. 家庭における父親1 〈注1〉
  ―父親の存在感の規定因−

白百合女子大学      大 野 祥 子
白百合女子大学      柏 木 惠 子

The Psychological Status of Father among Family

Shirayuri College   OHNO, Sachiko
Shirayuri College   KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The purposes of this study were to assess the psychological status of father among family from various viewpoints and to clarify the critical factors which determine the psychological status of father among the family.
 Subjects were 153 triads of high school students (male and female) and their parents. They were asked to answer to the questionnaire concerning attitude towards family, involvement in home, decision making patterns, evaluation of fathers and so on.
 Main findings were as following ;
1. Considerable differences were found in the psychological status among to family.
2. The psychological status of father was more stable and stronger in the family which were characterized by supportive, affective, and democratic climate.
3. Father's active involvement in home, positive attitudes towards family, father's dominant role in decision making at home and evaluations of father as professionals or workers, husband, and father were significantly intercorrelated.
4. The correlational patterns were different between father's self evaluation, mother's evaluation and child's evaluation.
5. Father's self evaluation as father wassignificantly related to the psychological status of father among the family, although self evaluation as husband was not related.
6. From mother's perspectives, father's role in decision making at home was not significant factor in determining psychological status of father.

Key words : Psychological status of father, Decision making patterns, Involvement in home, Evaluation of Father


9. 知能の日常的概念の生涯発達的研究

白百合女子大学      唐 澤 真 弓
白百合女子大学      東     洋

The life course development of the concept of an “Intelligent person”

Shirayuri College    KARASAWA, Mayumi
Shirayuri College    AZUMA, Hiroshi

 The concept of “intelligence” held by common people is known to reflect various aspects of the culture. Likewise, personal growth and development will influence how a person views the concept of intelligence. To assess the common sense concept of intelligence,it is often preferred to ask about the characteristics which a person perceived as intelligent tend to show. This study intends to find out life course development of concept of an “intelligent” person. Subjects were 1942 men and women, age 9-92. They responded to a set of 23 sentence items, each describing desirable personal characteristics. Five factors were found as are ; factor 1 “ability in arts and sports”, factor 2 “personality”, factor 3 “school grades”, factor 4 “intellectual and leadership ability”, and factor 5 “information and verbal fluency”. With young generation, factors 1, 3 and 5 were more dominant as traits of an intelligent person, while factor 2 and 4 appeared to be more dominant among over middle age. The shift of the eco-culture from that in schools to that in the society at large will explain those changes.

Key words : life-span development, popular concept, intelligence


10. 音楽的発達過程の研究 (その1)
   ―音楽大学生と一般女子大学生の事例研究―

甲南女子大学      梅 本 堯 夫 

A Study on the process of musical development (1)
―Case studies on the students of music major and non-music major―

Konan Women's University    UMEMOTO, Takao

 Music students in three universities (48, 35, 46 for each) and non-music students in a university (71) were required to make a report titled ‘Musical development of myself’. From this data, the processes of musical development were assessed. Followings are main findings : 1) By seven years old, more than 80% of students started their formal lessons of piano or violin performance. The peaks for the samples in three music universities were 3, 4, 5 years old, and for the sample of humanity department was six. 2) Students who never had had musical training were 9.9% for the humanity sample. 3) The peaks of the years when they abandoned music learning, which appeared only in humanity sample, were 6th grade and 8 or 9 grades. 4) From the case reports of 48 music students in X university, it was concluded that 8 or 9 years old were critical periods for music development in performance, and 11 or 12 years old for music reception. 5) They decided to be musicians during the ages of middle school. 6) They eagerly sought a belief on the nature of musicality.

Key words : musicality , musical development, belief


11. 管楽器の音色の色彩的イメージ 

甲南女子大学      三 雲 真理子
京都女子大学      小 谷 里 美

Color Hearing :
Associations between Color and Timbre of Wind Instruments

Konan Women's University   MIKUMO, Mariko
Kyoto Women's University    KOTANI, Satomi

 This study constituted an attempt to investigate the color hearing based on timbre of wind instruments. When the timbre of each instrument (Oboe, Trombone, Clarinet, Horn, Flute, Trumpet, Saxophone, Tuba) was presented, sixty-seven subjects who were highly trained in music were instructed to rate their color image on color-rating scale, seeing the samples of sixteen colors. They were also instructed that they should rate their image of timbre on 7-point adjective scales. The score were analyzed in a factor analysis method (varimax rotation) to investigate the association between the color hearing and the verbal image of timbre. From the results, some various unique associations between color and timbre of each instrument were obtained (see Table 4).

Key words : color hearing, timbre, wind instrument


12. 誌上講演
   ―藤永保 お茶の水女子大学最終講義―
人間の成長における初期環境の影響

国際基督教大学     藤 永   保


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