発達研究 Vol. 7


T 原 著
1. 「頭のよい人」 の属性に関する比較文化的研究 Y
  ―三類似語 「頭が良い」 「利巧な」 「賢い」 の比較―

モンクトン大学      大 江   都
モンクトン大学      Jacques Allard
お茶の水女子大学   藤 永   保

A cross-cultural study of the concept “intelligent person”
―Comparison between “atamagayoi” “rikona” and “kashikoi”―

Moncton University     OE, Miyako
Moncton University     Jacques Allard
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 This is a part of a cross-cultural studyamong six countries, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan Canada and Mexico. The present study examines the differences between three Japanese synonyms for “intelligent” : “atamagayoi” “rikona” and “kashikoi”. Male and female university students were asked to answer a questionnaire. The data are analysed by correspondence analysis. (A brief explanation on correspondence analysis is given.)
 Five major traits are identified : cognitive ability, positive social competence, receptive social competence, problem solving ability and verbal-social competence. Cognitive ability is recognized as a universal trait of intelligence. Positive and receptive social competence appear as opposite to each other. Male intelligence is associated to positive social competence and female to receptive social competence. Problem solving ability and verbal-social competence are also counter to each other. “Rikona” has a strong association with verbal-social competence. Overall “kashikoi” has a higher rate of positive answers to the questionnaire than two other synonyms.

Key words : concept of “intelligent person”, people's idea on intelligence, comparison among 3 synonyms for intelligent, traits of intelligence, correspondence analysis


2. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (])優秀事例の面接調査

お茶の水女子大学      渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学      佐 藤 真理子
お茶の水女子大学      藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children who have high performance on mathematics
(10) Interview with a superior case

Ochanomizu University   WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University   SATO, Mariko
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In this report, a very superior highschool student is interviewed. For example, he participated in the International Mathematical Olympiad (IMO) in 1990.
 He showed very high mathematical performance in the K-system classroom, and when he was eleven years old, he finished its course all over. Though he was well adjusted in this learning method, he reconstructed his concepts on mathematics and changed his learning style after highschool.
 This change seems to enhance his mathematical ability. He is very active and enjoys fully his school life. This report presents one of the most successful cases of early educated children.

Key words : concept on mathematics, interview with mathematically gifted highschool student, case study, effects of early education for gifted children


3. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (XI) 優秀事例の面接調査(母親)

お茶の水女子大学     佐 藤 真理子
お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children who have high performance on Mathematics
(11) Interview with a superior case and his mother

Ochanomizu University   SATO, Mariko
Ochanomizu University   WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In this paper, we report the interview results with the mother of the case of a very superior highschooler already reported in our paper X.
 The results are as follows ;
1 The mother has been a teacher of elementary school for 6 years before her marriage. She was a good teacher and well practiced methods of teaching young children. She could have encouraged her son so successfully that he was able to understand the four rules of fraction arithematics before entering elementary school.
2 He has learned mathematics in K-system in his mother's classroom, and has finished high school level before he was in 4th grade in elementary school.
3 The mother taught him tolerantly and diligently and accepted his self-autonomy after his school ages. The father also gave him various appropriate suggestions. There well balanced parental attitudes seem to have him formed good and effective learning set.
4 Now he succeeds to enter in the faculty of natural sciences of K University and aspires to proceed into the course of biology.

Key words : early education on mathematics, formation of learning set, motivation in mathematics, effects of early education for gifted children


4. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (XII) 4年後の追跡調査

お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学     佐 藤 真理子
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children who have high performance on mathematics
(12) A follow-up study of a mathematically gifted child four years later

Ochanomizu University    WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University    SATO, Mariko
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In this study, we follow up the case which we observed four years before. Then, she was a pre-school girl who showed very high performances in K-system. At this time, she becomes 9 years old. In part 1, we prepare some kinds of post-view tests in order to reconfirm her mathematical performances which she retained at the previous study. As a result, some of her memories of mathematical processing are well retained, but others remains incomplete. In part 2, we interview with her mother about familial environments and her parents attitudes on early education.

Key words : remembering of mathematical processing, parental attitudes on education, longitudinal case study, effects of early education for gifted children


5. 道徳的判断過程における認知的枠組みの比較文化的研究

白百合女子大学     東     洋
白百合女子大学     唐 澤 真 弓 

A Study of Cognitive Frames for Moral Stories

Shirayuri College   AZUMA, Hiroshi
Shirayuri College   KARASAWA, Mayumi

 When a person is asked to make a moral judgement about what someone else did, she would want to know the what happened, why, where, etc. She has a certain expectation about what information is contained in the story and about the time sequencing of those information. We will call such skelton of the expected story as her MORAL schema. Our previous findings suggest that the moral schema is, at least partially, culture bound (1988,1989). The stories used by Kohlberg and his associates leave some SLOTs of Japanese moral schemas out, while they fit well to the American ones.
 The present study shows the U.S.-Japan differences in the ways for dealing with the empty slots of moral schema, and suggests that childhood socialization culture may be a factor in differentially shaping the moral script.
 Subjects were 131 Japanese and 107 American college age students.
 The results show that :
1. The distribution of information Japanese need for making moral judgement is significantly different from that needed by Americans, suggesting that the moral schema is differently structured in two countries.
2. When the given story leaves empty slots of the moral script, Japanese tend to fill the empty slots with unspecified but favorably inclined content. This makes Japanese first judgement under the condition of very limited information to be less punitive.
3. As missing information are provided, the discrepancy of judgement between two groups of subjects diminish, suggesting that positive defaults which filled empty slots have been replaced by the actual information.


6. 学校文化と子どもの学習動機づけに関する研究

白百合女子大学     真 島 真 理

School cultures and motivation of students

Shirayuri College   MASHIMA, Mari

 The purpose of this study was to find out the influence of the pressure of the anticipated entrance examination upon the motivation toward study.
 Subjects were primary school children and junior high school students from schools supposedly different in the pressure of anticipated entrance examination. Those schools included both urban (Tokyo and Tsuruoka) and rural schools. The set of questions was designed to asses the following motivational orientations :
 ・Assessment Orientation Classroom Learning
    Assessment Domination
 ・Achievement Orientated Classroom Learning
    Achievement Orientated Examination-taking Behavior
 ・Interest Orientated Classroom Learning
    Interest Orientated Examination Taking.

 Significant influences of examination pressures upon students' learning motivation were found. There was a general trend that students of higher examination pressure schools were motivated more by the desire to do well in the examination than by curiosity or interest etc. There also was some indications that test anxiety and family pressure was higher with those students.


7. 「なりたい自分」 像のライフコース的変動

白百合女子大学     小 島 明 子
白百合女子大学     東     洋

The life-course of development of the “ideal-self” subject

Shirayuri College   KOJIMA, Akiko
Shirayuri College   AZUMA, Hiroshi

 This study intends to find out life course development of the ideal self.
 Subjects were 1641 men and women. The range of the age of the subjects was from 13 through over-90.They responded to a set of 20 sentence items, each describing desirable personal characteristics, by choosing the ones which were most desirable for them.
 The result showed both gender differences and age differences. After the middle age, occupation related ability and personality characteristics were important for men, while warmth, sympathy and thoughtfulness were important for women. With young generation, school related skills tended to be stressed.


8. 児童における対人交渉能力の発達

甲南女子大学     金 城 洋 子
甲南女子大学    梅 本 堯 夫

The Development of Interpersonal Negotiation Strategies in Children

Konan Women's University   KINJO, Yoko
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of interpersonal negotiation strategies (INSs) based on the theory and method of Selman, and to examine the validity of stage sequences in Japan whose culture is different from the U.S.A.. In this study, using a procedure of structured interview on dilemma-discussion, children's definition of the problem, proposed action, justification of the action, and evaluation of results were classified independently to 0 through 3 developmental stages. Proposed action were also classified according to interpersonal orientations (styles). Selman's method of interview was translated into Japanese with minimal modification. It was administered to 131 children from 1 to 6 graders. The results were as follows ;
1) The stage progression had been validated in Japan as well as in U.S.A..
2) As children of elementary school grow older, their negotiation process changed from unilateral forms of INSs to reciprocal forms.
3) As to sex differences in INSs levels, girls were more advanced than boys at each step.
4) With respect to interpersonal orientation, it was found that ゛Janken" orientation is a unique styles of Japanese.


9. 幼児における単語の認知過程
  ―ストループ課題による検討―

京都大学       石 王 敦 子
甲南女子大学    梅 本 堯 夫

Word recognition processes in Stroop task for preschool children

Kyoto University          ISHIO, Atsuko
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 To explore the relationship between the Stroop interference pattern and the ability extracting meaning from single words, two experiments were conducted to 6 year-old children. Subjects were asked to sort three types of cards, which contained color patches, color words in black ink or color words printed in incongruent color, depending on the printed color (Exp.1). In Exp.2, word reading task and sorting task depending on the word were added. The results of two experiments indicated that both significant Stroop interference and significant reverse-Stroop interference effects were shown. This phenomenon suggests that even 6 year-old children can extract meaning from printed words rapidly, however their word recognition processes are not as robust as those of adults.


10. 英国在住の日本人就学前幼児の異文化学習
  ―社会的場面に於ける 「自己制御」 の発達の日英比較―

ロンドン大学    佐 藤 淑 子 

Culture learning of Japanese pre-school children staying in England
―Comparative study on the development of ‘self-regulation’ between England and Japan―

London University    SATO, Yoshiko

 The purpose of this study is to examine culture learning process of Japanese pre-school children staying in England. It is this early period that the fundamental values of a certain culture are passed on to children by the caretakers.
 The recent study of ‘self-regulation’ in Japanese pre-school children displayed that the development of self-assertive dimension slows down around the age of 5, whereas the self-inhibitory dimension continues to develop after the age of 6, reflecting the socio-cultural values in Japan where self-inhibitive behaviour is strongly encouraged.
 I am conducting a comparative study among the following three sample groups: Japanese pre-school children in London, Japanese pre-school children in Tokyo and English pre-school children in London. By comparing the mother's developmental expectation, child rearing practice and the development of self-regulation in children, I aim to extract to what extent do Japanese mothers in London introduce English values in raising their children, and to what extent do Japanese children at this young children learn English culture.


11. 大脳半球機能差に及ぼす音楽的熟練度の効果
  ―メロディ及び和音を刺激として―

甲南女子大学      三 雲 真理子
甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫

Effects of training in music on hemispheric functional differences for processing of melodies and chords

Konan Women's University   MIKUMO, Mariko
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 This experiment constituted an attempt to investigate the cerebral hemispheric dominance for processing of Western and Japanese melodies, and chords. These three types of stimulus were presented in dichotic listening tasks to 14 trained and 14 untrained subjects in music, and two types of melody were presented to 6 Japanese and 6 foreigners. The tasks compared the abilities of each ear to recognize double auditory stimuli presented simultaneously to the two ears. The results showed that the right ear of the trained subjects showed a little superiority over the left ear in recognizing Western melodies, and the left ear showed a significant superiority over the right ear in recognizing chords. On the other hand, in recognizing Japanese melodies, the right ear of the Japanese showed a significant superiority over the left ear, while the left ear of the foreigners showed a little superiority over the right ear. These findings suggest that the highly trained subjects could use an analytic processing strategy in the left hemisphere and a holistic processing strategy in the right hemisphere.

Key words : hemispheric functional differences, dichotic listening, melody, chord, holistic processing strategy, analytic processing strategy


12. 旋律の熟知性と逸脱音の認知

甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫
甲南女子大学     片 山 僚 子

Cognition of deviated pitch as a function of familiarity of melody

Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao
Konan Women's University   KATAYAMA, Ryoko

 Previous researches (Umemoto et al, 1989 ; Mikumo & Umemoto, 1990) reported that cognition of pitch deviation was determined by the tonality of stimulus melodies. The present research is designed to assess the influence of familiarity of melodies. Fifteen tunes from Japanese folksongs and childrens songs were selected as familiar melodies. For the unfamiliar melodies (15), the original tunes were slightly modified reserving original rhythmic structures, contours and tonality. Also 15 atonal and unfamiliar melodies were constructed for the university subjects. The difference of familiarities of these melodies were checked on rating scale by each subject. Subjects were required to listen to each melody checking either music score or rhythm score, and to mark a deviated tone on the score sheet. Subjects were fifth (88), 7th (104), and 11th (89) graders. Also university students of music school (92) and psychology and general education (82) participated to the experiment. Results showed that the deviated tone in familiar melodies were found more correctly than in unfamiliar melodies.


13. 関係としてのコミュニケーションの研究
  −エントレインメントとコミュニケーション―

お茶の水女子大学    山 口 真 美
お茶の水女子大学    藤 永   保

A study of entertainment as a communication system
―conveying inter (personal) relationships―

Ochanomizu University    YAMAGUCHI, Masami
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In this paper, to clarify importance of nonverbal communications, firstly, studies of “entrainment” in various fields are discussed. Secondly, the thought of Gregory Bateson is reconsidered. “Entrainment” means phenomenon, in which rhythms of plural organisms or events are synchronized each other. It is recognized in biology, physics, and interpersonal relationships between mother and baby. It is thought also that “entrainment” plays an important role in interpersonal relationships. Bateson asserted that there was a much difference between the nonverbal and the verbal communication in its systems. For example, verbal communication conveys information, on the other hand nonverbal communication conveys, interpersonal relationships. There is little new information in the nonverbal communication. It is not important for person using the nonverbal communication to convey new information. Its role is to confirm the interpersonal relationship between the sender and the receiver.

Key words : entrainment, nonverbal communication, interpersonal relationship, verbal communication, information


14. 乳幼児の主観的対人世界の形成
  〜Bowlby理論からStern理論〜

東京都立大学          青 木 紀久代

The formation of subjective interpersonal world in infants ;
a view from the Bowlby's theory to the Stern's theory

Tokyo Metropolitan University AOKI, Kikuyo

 In this paper, various studies previously done on the early mother-infant affective interaction were applied to examine the formation process of the infant's subjective interpersonal world, which has drawn attention recently in the area of infant psychiatry.
 First, through surveying the trend of the attachment study, the Bowlby's internal working model was revaluated. It was also pointed out that the subjects of these studies on attachment have expanded to the pre-attachment aged infants.
 Next, the internal working model and the Stern's RIGs model were compared.
 As the results, it was found that they had many things in common, however the biggest difference between them was that the RIG model could include all kinds of infant's experiences on the interaction with their mother, not only those concerning security.
 Then, the attunement behavior instead of the attachment behavior was introduced as a phenomenon which should be useful when we study the mother-infant interaction from the view of the Stern's theory.

Key words : infant, the subjective interpersonal world, attachment, attunement, RIGs


15. 対人関係の内化モデルの発達
  ―D.Sternの理論を中心に―

早稲田大学   久保田 ま り

Development of Internal working models
Based on D.Stern's theory

Waseda University    KUBOTA, Mari

 The internal working model is conceived of as a motivational system that regulates behavior and permits the child to form expectations and evaluate consequences. It has been crucial in Developmental and Clinical Psychology, but it has rarely been defined and discussed.
 Recently, Main et. al provide some definitions of internal working models. And in accord with a developmental model, Stern outlines a hierarchy of representational units that become organized systematically as the child's cognitive abilities grow. (ex, Representation-Moment→ Representation-Scenario→Internal working model)
 This paper is, especially based on Stern's theory, done to account “how internal working models develop in early childhood.”


総目次へ戻る


Copyright (C) 2001 CODER (CENTER OF DEVELOPMENTAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH) . All Rights Reserved.