発達研究 Vol. 6


T 原 著
1. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    ([) 先取り学習とその効果
  ―大学生に対する調査―             

お茶の水女子大学     佐 藤 真理子
お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children having high performance on Mathematics
(8) Early learning and its effect

Ochanomizu University    SATO, Mariko
Ochanomizu University    WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 Our previous studies about the children having high performance on mathematics revealed that its early education form per-school years could accelerate its development.
 The purpose of this study is to clarity the relations between attained level of early learning in K-system mathes and its effect on the performance of high school maths, its role as a determinant of the majors of university etc. To this aim, 5 undergraduate students and 1 just graduated (teacher) are selected who have studies K-system mathes in their childhood and acquired very high performances at the 6th grade.
 Interviews with their teachers of K-system classrooms, self-made questionnaire and interviews with subjects are carried out. Result are as follows.
 They enjoyed their early learning of maths because they were stimulated by acquiring of new cognitions. The early education of K-system mathes were effective on the learning of high school mathes if the subjects had got appropriate learning set. Their majors of university are medical sciences (2) , engineering (1) , mathematics (1) , sociology (1) , and Japanese language and literature (1) .

Key words : early education on mathematics, effects of early learning, formation of learning set, intrinsic motivation


2. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (\) 大学生の数学観

お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学     佐 藤 真理子
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children having high performance on Mathematics
(9) Interview with university students

Ochanomizu University    WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University    SATO, Mariko
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In our previous studies, we reported gifted children who learned mathematics in (K-system) class-rooms. In their elementary school years, they enjoyed their school life, and got good marks in all subjects. In this report, when these gifted children become adolescences,how they remember and review their childhood and learning mathematics. To this aim, self-made questionnaire survey and interviews are carried out. The subjects are university students who have showed high mathematical performances in the K-system class-rooms. They regard their mathematical learning as good experiences in their school life. Their concepts on mathematics and learning styles have been influenced seriously by this unique learning system. They accept it positively.

Key words : gifted children, concept on mathematics, interview with university students


3. 「頭の良い人」 の属性に関する比較文化的研究 W
  ―6ヶ国の “頭の良さ” における性差比較―

文教大学         石 田 英 子
お茶の水女子大学   藤 永   保

A cross-cultural study of concept of “intelligent person”
―Comparative study on the sex differences of intelligence among six cultures―

Bunkyo University       ISHIDA, Eiko
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The purpose of this study was to make clear the sex differences in people's concept of intelligence among six cultures, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Canada, and Mexico.
 The results were as follows : 1. Five-factor solution was found to be valid. They were named “sympathy and sociability”, “social competence”, “ability to comprehend and process knowledge”, “accurate and quick decision making”, “ability to express oneself”. 2. The concepts of intelligence was influenced mostly by the nationality and sex of a target. 3. Female subjects regarded “ability to comprehend and process knowledge” as more significant characteristics of the intelligent person than males did. Regardless of the sex of subjects, an intelligent male target was scored high in “accurate and quick decision making” while an intelligent female target tended to get high score in “ability to express oneself”. 4. In Asian countries an intelligent male target was rated high in “social competence” whereas high “social competence” was a characteristics of an intelligent female target in Canada and Mexico.

Key words : intelligent person, cross-cultural difference, factor analysis, sex differences, concept of intelligence


4. 行動特徴と知能の高低判断のかかわりに関する日米比較 (中間報告)

白百合女子大学     東   洋
白百合女子大学     柏 木 惠 子
白百合女子大学     大 野 裕 美

Japan-US comparison of the relationships between behavior characteristics and judgement of intelligence. (an interim report)

Shirayuri College   AZUMA, Hiroshi
Shirayuri College   KASHIWAGI, Keiko
Shirayuri College   OHNO, Hiromi

 Based on a previous study (H. Azuma & K. Kashiwagi 1987, Descriptors for an intelligent person : A Japanese study, Japanese Psychological Research, 29, 17-26) a list of 32 behavior characteristics was constructed. Precautions were taken to make the Japanese and English versions correspond to each other as closely as possible. 74 American students and 135 Japanese students served as subjects. Each subject was asked to think of three people he/she knows well, including : 1. a highly intelligent person of the same sex, 2. a highly intelligent person of the opposite sex, and 3. a person of the same sex whom the subject did not think very intelligent. Then the subjects were asked to rate how well each item on the list fit the target. The relevance of each item for differentiating between highly intelligent and less intelligent people was assessed and comparisons were made between Japanese and American data. It was found that, in Japan, items related to inter-personal sensitivity, speed of response and memory made a greater contribution to the discrimination between highly intelligent and less intelligent persons. Some cultural differences were also seen in the interaction between the country variable and the sex of subjects and targets.


5. 道徳的判断過程の発達的比較文化的研究
  ―逐次明確化方略による試み 3−

白百合女子大学    唐 澤 真 弓
白百合女子大学    東   洋

A cross-cultural and Developmental Study of the Process of Collecting Information for Making Moral Judgements 3

Shirayuri College   KARASAWA, Mayumi
Shirayuri College   AZUMA, Hiroshi

 In recent years, researchers have begun to develop and compare various studies of moral judgements using Kohlberg's methods and theory. When doing cross-cultural comparisons, in addition to presenting Kohlberg's highly structured explanations of actions, it is important to present unstructured, skeltal situations to determine the conditions under which a behavior may be considered morally acceptable. Our earlier study (Azuma & Karasawa,1989) suggests that there existis a difference in the information considered important by Japanese and Americans in order to make moral judgements. We observed that, when making moral judgements. Japanese have a tendency to desire objective information. Here, we examine what and how judgements change as important information about the conditions surrounding a behavior is provided.
 Results shows that :
1) There was a significant differences between two cultures in the kind of information deemed to be important for making more accurate moral judgements.
2) In both cultures judgements based on skeltal information underwent considerable changes as supplementary information accumulated. In fact, the final judgements, after all requested information was supplied, showed even less differences between the American and Japanese responses than did the judgements based only on the skeltal information.
3) The degree of change of the judgement due to certain pieces of supplmentaly information tended to influence Japanese judgements in the direction of more condemination whereas the American respondents tended to move toward a more accepting judgement overall.
4) The sex difference in response was small and insiginificant in both cultures.


6. 他者の感情を推論する能力の発達

東京大学         平 林 秀 美
白百合女子大学      柏 木 惠 子

Development of ability to infer other's emotions in pre-school children

University of Tokyo   HIRABAYASHI, Hidemi
Shirayuri College     KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The purpose of the study was to examine the ability to infer other's emotion and also to examine the ability of social perspective taking in preschool children.
 Two experiments, pricture-story method to assess the ability of inference and Selman's task to examine social perspective taking, were carried out for 3 and 5 years groups.
 Main findings were as follows :
 *As children grew older, they were able to adequately utilize both personal and situational informations to infer other's emotion.
 *Three-year-old children tended to infer other's emotion mainly by situational information and then they sometimes were unsuccessful in inferring other's emotion adequately.
 *Significant difference was observed in the ability of social perspective taking between two age groups. Older children was superior in social perspective taking to younger children.
 *Inference of other's emotion and social perspective taking were found significantly to be connected each other.
 This suggested that adequate utilization of social informations and perspective taking were closely related facets of social cognitive development.


7. 幼児の自己制御機能測定の試み (2)

福島大学         氏 家 達 夫
白百合女子大学    柏 木 惠 子
東京外国語大学    田 島 信 元

Experimental assessment of self regulation in preschool children (2)

Fukushima University             UJIIE, Tatsuo
Shirayuri College               KASHIWAGI, Keiko
Tokyo University of Foreign Studies   TAJIMA, Nobumoto

 In this study, 68 preschoolers at age 6 were observed in 3 experimental settings (Block task, Flag task, and Response to breach of a promise). The most children did not do any objection nor request to fulfill a promise, even when tester broke the promise. The behaviors not only in Response to breach of a promise but also in Block and Flag task were positively related with mother- and teacher-rated daily inhibitory self-regulation and negatively correlated with daily assertive self-regulation, and also positively correlated with resistance-to-temptation score assessed at age 4. These relation was found in boys but in girls.


8. 科学者の活動の研究が科学を学習する活動の研究に対して示唆するもの

東京大学           鈴 木 高 士

Implications of studies of scientists' activity for studies of science-learners' activity

University of Tokyo SUZUKI, Takashi

 In this article, I argue that studies of some aspects of scientists' activity will give important suggestions for studies of science education. Recent studies in human cognition suggest that when an individual is engaged in a meaningful activity, he easily learns knowledge that is meaningful in such an activity. So it is desirable to organize science learning in activities that are meaningful for learners. In organizing science learning in activities, the activities must satisfy these conditions : activities must be continual and make learners reconsider knowledge that was learned before. The preliminary analysis suggests that in scientists' activity, they acquire knowledge that is required in various sub-activities directed to establishing their own theory, including disputes between their own and others' theories. This characteristic of scientists' activity is considered to make scientists' activity continual and scientists reconsider their knowledge. Thus, studies of scientists' activity will be suggestive to the studies of science-learning activities. Implications for future research are discussed.


9. 「増加と減少の同時進行としての生涯発達」 の検討
  幼児・児童期の左右鏡映反応を例にして

東京大学             鈴 木  忠
日本女子大学          松 嵜 洋 子

Examination on the gain/loss perspective in life-span developmental psychology
The case of children's mirror-image response

University of Tokyo         SUZUKI, Tadashi
Japan Women's University   MATSUZAKI, Yohko

 The gain/loss perspective assumes that any process of development entails aspects of growth (gain) and decline (loss). In this paper, its historical background is first presented. Next the perspective is examined from a viewpoint of the cognitive approach. Life-span researchers seem to focus more on the behavioral change rather than on the change of cognitive processes. We argue that cognitive development can be viewed only in terms of “gains”. The “loss” of a certain behavior does not necessarily mean the “loss” of the cognitive processes underlying it, but may be produced, for example, by a misapplication of some newly acquired strategy. Third the argument about the gain/loss framework is illustrated in the study of spatial development. It has recently been proposed that two types of mode may function in human spatial processes throughout development. We argue that developmental change can be explained in terms of which mode is “used” in a given task, rather than of the replacement of one mode with the other. Finally two experiments are reported. The results suggest the existence of two kinds of spatial functioning, but did not provide conclusive evidence concerning the developmental change on the cognitive level.


10. 旋律化の発達について

甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫
甲南女子大学     岩 吹 由美子

Development of Improvised Singing

Konan Women's University    UMEMOTO, Takao
Konan Women's University    IWABUKI, Yumiko

 Children were given three simple sentences with pleasant, sad and neutral meaning, and asked to sing by improvised melodies. Based on the recorded data of 58 children [11 children in a younger class of a Kindergarten (m=5 ; 3years)、12 children in an older class (m=6 ; 1)、 26 2nd graders (m=8 ; 3)、 9 4th graders (m=10 ; 1)] 、following generalizations were made : 1) The first step in the improvised singing is the arrangement of rhythmic beat on the syllables of sentences. 2) Pitch movements in the improvised singing of younger children did not differ so much from the pitch intonation in the sentences. 3) The intervals in the improvised melodies increased with age. Fifth was firstly used by a 2nd grader. 4) Differential expressions for the three sentences of different feeling were not frequent in younger subjects, but gradually the number of subjects who sung by expression increased by 4th grade. In the second experiment, children's songs were rated by 10 university students on fivescales. Significant increases with ages were found on the scores of melodiousness and originality.


11. KIDS (乳幼児発達スケール) の開発に関する研究

川村学園女子大学     三 宅 和 夫
日本大学           大 村 政 男
共立女子大学        高 嶋 正 士
女子聖学院短大      山 内 茂
横浜市大病院        橋 本 泰 子
(財)発達科学研究教育センター  小 林 幹 児

A new Test Developmental Screening Scale
―Kinder Infant Development Scale―

Kawamura Women's University      MIYAKE, Kazuo
Nihon University               OHMURA, Masao
Kyoritsu Women's University        TAKASHIMA, Masashi
Margaret. K. Long Junior College     YAMANOUCHI, Shigeru
Yokohama City University Hospital    HASHIMOTO, Taiko
Center of Developmental Education and Research   KOBAYASHI, Kanji

 Screening tests for educational measurement of children. There are many children's development tests. But in Japan, almost all standardized tests were made so many years ago about 20 years that they are no longer accurate. Now, we have made test (KIDS) which are convenient and easy to use, and easily completed by parents. This test (KIDS) was standardized between 1988-1989 using 6000 children aged 0-6.
 The KIDS can measure 9 areas of development. Physical motor, Manipulation, Receptive Language, Expressive Language, Language Concepts, Social Relationships with children, Social Relationships with Adults, Discipline, and Feeding.
 Using the 9 areas development, this test produces a clear profile, Developmental Age and Developmental Quantity of each child.
 The reliable coefficient of this test is .95, and the correlation coefficient between KIDS and the Bienet intelligence test is r=. 856. and between KIDS and WPPSI r=. 653.
 We have confirmed that KIDS is valuable for diagnosis in clinical case because the child development level in 9 areas can beestablished.


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