発達研究 Vol. 5


T 原 著
1. 数学的英才児の課題解決 
    (X) 数学的英才児の数学観及びパーソナリティ
  ―子どもへの質問紙調査より―

お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学     佐 藤 真理子
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children having high performance on Mathematics
(5) Their unique concepts on mathematics and personality patterns

Ochanomizu University   WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University   SATO, Mariko
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 We have investigated in some case studies how the gifted children solved various mathematical problems in previous studies. In the next step we try to clarify their unique concepts on mathematics and personality characteristics in this study. The children who showed very high mathematical performances in the K-system classrooms have inquired more stable and persistent learning habit, higher levels of motivation and unique interests in the abstract aspects of mathematics in contrast to the control group children. It is thought, however, that their learning style had been cultivated in their familial environment. Most of the gifted have unique personality patterns which mark high scores of extraversion, stability and good adjustment. They enjoy their school life, get good marks, and have the leadership in their classroom.

Key words : gifted children, learning style, personality pattern, motivational level, concept on mathematics


2. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (Y) 家庭環境と性格的特徴
  ―質問紙調査と事例研究

お茶の水女子大学    佐 藤 真理子
お茶の水女子大学    渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学    藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children having high performance on Mathematics
(6) Familial environments and personality patterns
―A questionnaire survey and some case studies

Ochanomizu University   SATO, Mariko
Ochanomizu University   WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of familial environments, developmental processes, and personality patterns of the gifted children on mathematics. To this aim, a questionnaire survey was carried out to the mothers of the children showed very high performances on mathematics in some K-system classrooms already described in our fifth report in this journal. As pointed out in the fifth report, most of the children of high performance group were classified into D-type in YG personality test. Their familial environments were characterized as the type encouraging high level of learning motivation.

Key words : gifted children, personality pattern (in YG test), parental attitudes on education, early education, case study


3. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (Z) 解法の再生過程

お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学     佐 藤 真理子
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children having high performance on Mathematics
(7) Recognition and reproduction of how to solve the learned problems

Ochanomizu University   WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University   SATO, Mariko
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In the study, we carried out case studies of the two boys showed very high performances on the K-system mathematics reported already in our previous report VI. They are elementary school children, though they have completed the mathematical course of K-system roughly corresponding to the stage of general senior high school.
 We prepared 4 kinds of tasks, and observed their solving processes using together thinking aloud method. Some prominent features of their method or style of the mathematical solving processes were found out. For example, once the beginning of a series of mathematical operations to solve a particular problem was recalled, they could got the correct answered very smoothly. Their networks of mathematical knowledge were so well-formed that each solving operations or patterns of mathematical problems could be easily remembered and consistently classified. But their solving method were somewhat rigid and stereotypic. From the view point of mathematical creativity such problem still remains.

Key words : problem solving in mathematics, mathematical abilities in gifted children, solving style, case study


4. 幼児のself-regulation(自己制御)の発達

東京女子大学       柏 木 惠 子
東京女子大学       大 野 裕 美
東京外国語大学      田 島 信 元
福島大学          氏 家 達 夫

Development of self-regulation in pre-school children

Tokyo Woman's Christian University   KASHIWAGI, Keiko
Tokyo Woman's Christian University   OHNO, Hiromi
Tokyo University of foreign Studies   TAJIMA, Nobumoto
Fukushima University            UJIIE, Tatsuo

 Our previous study on the self-regulatory behavior in pre-school children revealed that the function of self-regulation was defined as consisting of two distinctive aspects: self-inhibitory dimension and self-assertive dimension, and also suggested different developmental patterns between two dimensions in pre-school period.
 The purpose of this study was to clarify the developmental process of these two dimensions of self-regulation in pre-school children.
 36 boys and 32 girls were rated by questionnaires for both their mothers and the kindergarten teachers on their self-regulatory behaviors at two phases of age 4 and 6. Factor analysis was carried out and five dimensions were identified : self-assertion in kindergarten, self-inhibition in kindergarten, self-assertion at home, self-inhibition at home and selfishness and dependence on mother.
 Different developmental patterns were found between self-assertion and self-inhibition; self-inhibition developed consistently as increasing with age, though self-assertion remained almost same level from 4 to 6. Sex differences were recognized at both age levels; self-assertion was stronger in boys than in girls, on the other hand self-inhibition was stronger in girls than in boys. In boys, the development of self-inhibition and self-assertion were connected each other, while in girls, two functions developed independently.


5. 子どもの読書習慣形成における母親の影響

東京女子大学      内 山   薫
東京女子大学      柏 木 惠 子

Maternal influences upon formation of the reading habit in children

Tokyo Woman's Christian University    UCHIYAMA, Kaoru
Tokyo Woman's Christian University    KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 Some 700 girls from 5th graders to college students were investigated by questionnaire on their attitude toward books and the reading habit. Also, maternal factors including mothers' attitude toward books, their reading habit and their interventions in child's reading were assessed through child's report.

 The quantity and content of the books were analysed in each age level and developmental pictures of reading were examined. Maternal factors were examined in relation to child's attitude toward books and reading habit. Mother's positive attitude toward books were found to be closely connected with her child's positive attitude toward books and with active reading habit. Various maternal interventions such as provision of books to the child, encouragement to read, teaching how to and what to read and so on were identified. Differential effects of maternal factors were observed ; provision of books was the primarily influential to facilitate child's reading among other maternal interventions. The educational and cultural backgrounds were discussed as the determinants for the formation of reading habit in children.


6. 幼児の数記憶における旋律化の効果

甲南女子大学      梅 本 堯 夫
甲南女子大学      多 田 裕 子

Effects of melodizing on digit memory of children

Konan Women's University    UMEMOTO, Takao
Konan Women's University    TADA, Yuko

 Twenty-five children of five to six years old were tested on the oral immediate recall of number series of four through seven digits long auditory presented. Number series were presented on tape recorder in three conditions : a) numbers were sung by a experimenter with a melody familiar to children, b) numbers were sung with a melody unfamiliar to children, c) as a control condition, numbers were presented without melody. Digits were presented at a tempo of 72 per minute for all conditions. Results showed that both average correct recall of digits and also memory span of digits in condition a) and b) were significantly better than control condition c). The difference between condition a) and b) was not significant. The results were interpreted with a theory of organizing factor of melody on memory.


7. 他者からの注視が児童の脈拍に及ぼす影響

甲南女子大学     加 納 真 美
甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫

The effects of being watched by others on the pulse rates of children

Konan Women's University    KANOH, Mami
Konan Women's University    UMEMOTO, Takao

 The pulse rates of sixty-eight children from 4th grade through 6th grade were measured during their performance of calculation tasks being watched by an adult (experimenter) or not. Also pulse rates were recorded in the situation where children were in the focus of monitor camera. Children realized whether the monitor camera focused them or not by finding their own figures or just other objects (plants) on TV display. Pulse rates were recorded by an instrument attached to a finger. Data were analyzed not only on average, but on maximum, minimum and variance also. Results showed that pulse rates were rather high when they were doing calculation by alone than in the presence of an adult. Compared to relaxed state, pulse rates were slightly higher when children were in the focus of the monitor camera.


8. 調性感の発達
   ―音程のずれの認知テストの作成―

甲南女子大学    梅 本 堯 夫
甲南女子大学    三 雲 真理子
甲南女子大学    村 瀬 明 美

Development of tonal sense
―A new test on cognition of pitch deviation―

Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao
Konan Women's University   MIKUMO, Mariko
Konan Women's University   MURASE, Akemi

 A new test was constructed to assess the ability of cognition of pitch deviation of a tone in a melody. Thirty tonal and thirty atonal melodies from 4 to 6 tones length were constructed. For each melody one tone was modified a quarter tone up or down from correct pitch in diatonic scale. The contours of melodies and positions of deviated tones in melodies were controlled. The presentation rate was 60 per minute for each tone. Standard test stimulus was made of computer sounds recorded in a DAT tape, and reproduced on DAT at class rooms. Subjects were children of 3rd (73), 5th (74), 7th (73), 9th (63), and 11th (78) grades. Also students in women's university (56) and in music college for women (73) were tested. Subjects were required to mark either a music note or a dot of black circles corresponding to a deviated tone in a melody.
 Followings are major findings of the research : a) average number of correct answer increased with grades, b) for all groups, the scores for tonal melodies were higher than for atonal melodies, c) subjects with longer training in instrumental playing showed higher scores than other subjects, d) no difference was found between answer styles of music notes and black circles. Implications of these results for developmental and music psychology were discussed.


9. 道徳的規範侵犯における集団的同調の影響

白百合女子大学    鈴 木 照 子
白百合女子大学    角   和 子
白百合女子大学    唐 澤 真 弓

A Study for the tendency in trespassing rules among others

Shirayuri College   SUZUKI, Teruko
Shirayuri College   SUMI, Kazuko
Shirayuri College   KARASAWA, Mayumi

 This study examined the tendency to trespass rules more easily when other people doing the same. 6 stories were composed each describing a person trespassing a rule. Each stories had 2 versions. One telling that other people are also trespassing and another telling that the person trespassed independently. Subjects were to judge how permissible the trespassing was from the eye of the subject him/herself, from the eye of the society in general and then assuming that the protagonist of trespassing of him/herself. Subjects were college students and junior-high school students. With both groups the tendency to be more permissive toward the trespassing made when others were also trespassing. This tendency was more pronounced with junior-high school subjects.


10. 道徳的判断過程についての比較文化的研究
   ―逐次明確化方略による試み―

白百合女子大学     東     洋
白百合女子大学     唐 澤 真 弓 

A Cross Cultural Study of Making Moral Judgement

Shirayuri College   AZUMA, Hiroshi
Shirayuri College   KARASAWA, Mayumi

 The purpose of this study was to compare Japanese and American college students interms of their implicit definition of the domain of morally relevant events. The method used was the gradual qualification of the situation subjected to moral judgement through successive input of information. The present report focuses upon the cross-cultural comparison of the information which are given priority.Japanese and American college age students were interviewed individually. Subjects were given a minimum description of a morally questionable act and asked to choose from a list of 13 questions those pieces of information needed to make a more accurate judgement. Answers to questions were presented one by one and changes in subjects judgements were recorded. Results showed that in both age groups Japanese subjects tended to choose feelings information while American preferred more factual information.


11. 道徳的判断過程についての発達的研究
   ―逐次明確化方略による試み 2―

白百合女子大学    唐 澤 真 弓
白百合女子大学    東     洋  

A developmental study for making moral judgement among Japanese and Americans

Shirayuri College   KARASAWA, Mayumi
Shirayuri College   AZUMA, Hiroshi

 The purpose of this study was to look into the developmental aspects of the differences observed with college students that Japanesetend to give more priority to personal feeling information as a basis for making moral judgement. It was necessary to introduce several changes to the tools employed because some of these scenario prepared for college students were not appropriate to the younger population. Boys and girls aged 13 to 16 were studied in Japan and the U.S..
 Differences similar to those found with college students were observed, but they were less pronounced in comparison to college data. This suggests that cross-cultural differences we have observed exist at early adolescence but further develops through later adolescent years.


12. 「頭のよい人」 の属性に関する比較文化的研究 V
  ―各国の 「頭の良さ」 の因子構造比較―     

文教大学          石 田 英 子
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

A cross-cultural study of the concept of “intelligent person” V
―Comparative study on the factor structures among six cultures―

Bunkyo University       ISHIDA, Eiko
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the factors of  “intelligence” among six cultures, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico, (2) the differences of three Japanese concepts, among ‘atamano-yosa’, ‘rikousa’ and ‘kashikosa’, which express somewhat different “intelligence”.
 Male and female college students were asked to think of an intelligent person, and to rate each of 67 items describing the attributes of an intelligent person according to whether it fits that person or not.
 The results were as follows ; 1. Five factors solution was forced to be valid. Factor 1 was interpreted as intellectual verbal fluency. Factor 2 was a social relation competence, factor 3 was a capacity for sympathy, factor 4 was industry, efficiency, factor 5 is having knowledge.
 2. Comparing with Azuma and Kashiwagi's study, four similar factors were commonly seen. Capacity for sympathy like our factor 3 items were found out. Since we could get a lot of data in Asian countries.
 3. After the factor analysis, the similar first factor was seen in every country. The characteristic factors in each country were originality in Japan, attraction of appearance in Korea, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico, skilfulness in China.
 4. Comparing the factor's score in each country, the factor score of social relation competence was high in Mexico and Canada, was low in Asian countries. In Mexico, Canada and Korea, the similar structure of factors was seen.
 5. Looking at the sex-difference of the factor's score in the subjects, the scores of female were higher than those of male. The sex difference in scores was most often observed in Japan and Canada, and was not observed in Mexico, Korea and Taiwan.
 6. Looking at the sex-difference of the factor's score in the objects, the score of intellectual verbal fluency factor was high in the case of which the objects are female. The score of industry, efficiency factor was high in the case of which the objects are male.
 7. ‘Kashikosa’ showed most similar results in factor structure among ‘atama-no-yosa’ and  ‘rikousa’. What looked like most similar concepts to “intelligence” was ‘kashikosa’.

 Key words : factor structure of “intelligence”, factor's score, cross cultural study, ゛an intelligent person", ‘atama-no-yosa’, ‘rikousa’, ‘kashikosa’


13. 「頭のよい人」 の属性に関する比較文化的研究 W
   ―カナダでの調査、及び日本との比較―

モントクン大学       大 江   都
モントクン大学       Jacques Allard
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

A cross-cultural study of the concept of “intelligent person” W
―French and English Canadian and Japanese concepts―

Moncton University     OE, Miyako
Moncton University     Jacques Allard
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 This study is a part of the cross-cultural study among six countries, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico. The present study was to examine the concept of “intelligent person” among Canadians and to compare that to the Japanese result. University students of two different language groups (francophone and anglophone) in Atlantic Canada were chosen to answer a questionnaire. The data from Canadian and Japanese surveys were analysed by correspondence analysis.
 It was found that there are similarities and differences among the three groups. Several items related to knowledge and cognitive ability, such as “knowledgeable”, “has common sense”, “quick minded”, “quick understanding” are found to be the universaly recognized traits of an intelligent person. However the francophone Canadian also associates intelligence to practical skills, the anglophone Canadian to positive social competence, and Japanese to receptive social competence. Translation bias probably had some effect in the results. It is suggested that idioms should be avoided in the design of cross-language questionnaires.

Key words : intelligence, cross-cultural study, Canadian concept of “intelligent person”, correspondence analysis, questionnaire survey


14. 「頭のよい人」 の属性とその 「文化伝統背景」 T
  ―中国人大学生200人へのアンケートに見る―

お茶の水女子大学    李     燕
お茶の水女子大学    藤 永   保

The concept of “intelligent person” and his/her background of cultural tradition T
―As Looking at questionnaire filled by 200 Chinese college students―

Ochanomizu University   Yan LI
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 This little essay is written on the relation between the concept of “an intelligent person” and “his/her background of cultural tradition”, with based on the questionnaire filled by 200 Chinese college students in B, city.
 The result of questionnaire shows that Chinese students attach great importance to wit or smartness as a requisite for “an intelligent person”.
 These are eight ancient stories of China which involve concept of “an intelligent person”, and indicate how the herols of these stories could solve difficult problems due to their wit and smartness. The relation between the concept of “an intelligent person” thought by Chinese college students in the modern time and the cultural tradition in China with 5000 years of history is interpreted.

Key words : an intelligent person, Chinese cultural tradition, goodness vs badness morality, intelligence and morality


15. 「頭のよい人」 の属性とその 「文化伝統背景」 U
  −台湾と日本との比較―

お茶の水女子大学     謝   碧 珠
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

The concept of “intelligent person” and his/her background of cultural tradition U
―The differences between Taiwanese and Japanese―

Ochanomizu University    Bihju Shieh
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The purpose of this study was to examine the differences about the concept of “an intelligent person” between Taiwanese and Japanese. The results were as follows : 1) The imaged intelligent person in Taiwan were attributed more traits expressed by the questionnaire items than those in Japan.
 2) The attributes of the imaged intelligent person in Taiwan were more likely to be recognized in the domain of “Rinkiohen”, meaning “adapt to changing circumstances” or “cope with any contingency”, which should be the most common concept of the perfectly intelligent person by Chinese Culture in Taiwan. And in Japan, characteristics concerning on the item of “Chishikihofu” meaning “have wide varieties of knowledge” were more attributed than in Taiwan.
 3) These were similar sex differences and different ones too in both countries. The former were brought along by sex-role differentiation, and the latter were resulted from the cultural differences. For example, the imaged intelligent female in both countries were more likely attributed in the domain of social competence, school achievements and writing skills than male. But the imaged intelligent female in Japan were more described as “Kikijozu” means “a good listener” than in Taiwan. Because of his/her background of cultural tradition brought the different concept of “an intelligent person”.

Key words : sex differences, sex-role differentiation, cross-cultural study, Taiwanese concept of “an intelligent person”, intelligence


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