発達研究 Vol. 4


T 原 著
1. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (V) 既習課題の再認の様子

お茶の水女子大学    小 林 順 子
お茶の水女子大学    藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children having high performance on Mathematics
(3) Recognition of the once-solved problems

Ochanomizu University   KOBAYASHI, Junko
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 Many preschool and elementary school children study Mathematics at the private school (K-system). We have been studying the characteristics of their problem solving. In these case studies (study-V, study-W), we paid our attention to how to cope with the problems right after children met them.
  In study-V, two preschool and four elementary school children were confronted with the once-solved problems. We found that they had peculiar perceptions to the given problems, and that by such perceptions, they could see through the structure of the problems. Recognition of those problems and rapid expression of plans of solving were considered to embody their special perceptions. Furthermore, we considered the relation between their perception of equations and their comprehension of an equal sign.

Key words : Problem solving in mathematics, Perception of problems, Preschool and elementary school children, Case study


2. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (W) 応用課題への適用過程

お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in the children having high performance on Mathematics
(4) Processes in applied problems

Ochanomizu University   WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In study-IV, we had some case studies about the two girls who took part in our study-V, and showed very high performance on the mathematical problem solving. They are elementary school girls and learn mathematics at the private schools (K-system) respectively.
  First, we observed how they solved each applied mathematical problems which they had not met before. We found some features of mathematical problem solving by them. They had some kinds of good memory about mathematical operations. These memories would be recalled and applied to the new question appropriately. We showed some examples about it.
  Second, we roughly investigated the high performance children's personality. As a result, we suggested that they preserved indomitably in their learning.

Key words : Problem solving in mathematics, Mathematical abilities in elementary school child, Memory of mathematical operation, Case study


3. 幼児期における気質と自己制御機能

東京女子大学     柏 木 惠 子
東京女子大学     大 野 裕 美

Temperament and self-regulation in pre-school children

Tokyo Woman's Christian University   KASHIWAGI, Keiko
Tokyo Woman's Christian University   OHNO, Hiromi

 The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of temperament in pre-school children, and the correlations of the data at two age levels were examined. Temperament was assessed by questionnaire for mothers at children's age 4 and 6. The results showed that there was high correlation between the temperament at age 4 and at age 6. On the other hand, larger sex differences were recognized at age 6 than at age 4 ; inhibitory temperament was found more apparently in girls than in boys. The differences seemed to be related to the effects of socialization and development of self-regulation.


4. 幼児の自己制御機能の発達 :
    絵画自己制御能力テストにおける4−6歳の縦断的変化について

東京外国語大学      田 島 信 元
東京女子大学        柏 木 惠 子
福島大学           氏 家 達 夫

Development of the capacity of self-regulatory behavior in preschoolers : A longitudinal study

Tokyo University of Foreign Studies   TAJIMA, Nobumoto
Tokyo Woman's Christian University   KASHIWAGI, Keiko
Fukushima University            UJIIE, Tatsuo

 The present study aimed to clarify the capacity of self-regulation in preschool children. Self-regulation in this study is defined as composites from 2 dimensions, self-assertive and self-inhibitive functions. According to this definition, the mesurement device called Picture Self-Regulation Test(PSRT) was made to assess the child's capacity of self-regulatory behavior. This test was composed of 5 pictures indicating frustrated situations in nursery school life such that someone takes away the shovel a certain child is playing with in a sandbox. Eighty 4-year-old children were asked whether the boy in pictures ought to assert his own desire or put up with assertion at first (“duty” judgement). After the first session, they were also asked whether they would really assert or inhibit their own desire in each situation(“real” judgement). Same procedures were administered when they grew up to 6 years of age. The comparison between the child's “duty” judgement and the judgement of his own “real” self-regulatory behavior provided the results that 60% of 4-year-old children showed the agreement of those two judgements. Among the disagreement children, the change from “inhibitive” judgement to “assertive” was observed more than the opposite. At 6 years of age the ratio of that agreement became higher in self-inhibitive situations. These results suggests that the preschoolers tend to become more inhibitive, and that as the preschoolers are getting older, more agreement is found in “duty-real” judgement between children and adults (experimenters).


5. 幼児期における表情表出および表情識別の発達
   ― 「見られていること」 による影響の変化―

甲南女子大学    南 山 真 美
甲南女子大学    梅 本 堯 夫

Development of encoding and decoding of facial expression in younger children
―Developmental changes in the effects of being ゛looked at"―

Konan Women's University   MINAMIYAMA, Mami
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 Fifty-two children from three to six years old were tested on four tasks (self-regulation test by Kashiwagi, decoding test of facial expressions by drawing and photo pictures, encoding test of facial expression for being happy, sad, surprised, anger and shy, conceptualization of shyness) and waiting task either in or out of the sight of the experimenter. The facial expressions of children were continuously taken by two video cameras. After the experiment, four raters selected feeling terms from adjective lists and also rated on four scales (pleasantness, unpleasantness, tension and shyness) inspecting facial expressions of children on a display reproducing video tapes. From factor analyses of the data, three factors of facial expression of children (active, displeased, and shyness) were obtained. Factor scores for each age group showed following developmental tendencies ; expression of shyness increased as the age of children increased ; the expression of unpleasantness or displeasure in the sight of experimenter decreased as the age of children increased ; expression of tension were more frequent in the sight of the experimenter than out of the sight.


6. 児童における特称命題の含意理解について

京都大学       山   祐 嗣
甲南女子大学    梅 本 堯 夫

Comprehension of the particular proposition's implication in children

Kyoto University          YAMA, Hiroshi
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 In traditional logic, the universal proposition is one of the forms which the particular proposition takes. But psychologically, the particular proposition is unlikely to be extended to the universal form. The purpose of this research was to demonstrate the validity of pragmatic explanation that this is because, expecting the speaker to observe the cooperative principle (Grice,1975), one think that the speaker makes universal predication if all. Two groups of thirty-three children in sixth grade, for one group it was stressed that the speakers observe the cooperative principle, were asked whether the each of eight propositions was extended to the universal form or not. The results were that the children in stressed group were more unlikely to extended the particular propositions to universal form. This suggests that the pragmatic approach is powerful for such inferences in natural language.


7. 道徳的判断過程研究のための一方法

白百合女子大学    東   洋
白百合女子大学    唐 澤 真 弓

A method for studying the process of moral judgement

Shirayuri College   AZUMA, Hiroshi
Shirayuri College   KARASAWA, Mayumi

 The purpose of this study is to construct a set of tasks which asks the subject to evaluate someone's behavior as a third person. The stories to be presented to the subject involve moral dilemma such as studied by Piaget and Kohlberg. Our method, however, is different from theirs in the following points :
  1. Subject are given at first, a skeletal information. Then, other contextual informations are added one after another as they requested. This procedure makes it possible to study the process in which people integrate various information and arrive at their judgement.
  2. This method also makes it possible to the kind of contextual information which are influential on the judgement and the way in which they affect judgement.
  3. The theme of the story is concerened with the familiar topics which subjects are likely to face in everyday life.
  In this paper we present the details of the proposed procedure and discuss some problematic features of it.


8. 言い換えによる文章理解過程のスケッチ

東京大学    鈴 木 高 士

Sketching the Processes of Reading Comprehension by Rephrasing

University of Tokyo   SUZUKI, Takashi

 This article provides a preliminary sketch of the processes of reading comprehension by rephrasing. Rephrasing facilitates comprehension by making schemata available that would not otherwise have been available. In terms of the types of the substitutive expression, rephrasing processes are classified into these categories: rephrasing into a stereotyped expression: rephrasing into a expression that contains concepts that are connectedwith many “cognitive models”: rephrasing into a expression that contains “basic level” concepts for thinking. Rephrasing processes are directed by the reader's goals and beliefs. Implications for future research are discussed.


9. 「頭の良い人」 の属性に関する比較文化的研究  T
    ―研究計画―

お茶の水女子大学    藤 永   保

A cross-cultural study of the concept of “an intelligent person” T
―Research design―

Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The concept of intelligence is not only one of the oldest and the most important subjects in psychology but also becomes more and more widely interesting topic especially in high technological cultures and societies. Nevertheless traditional concept of intelligence seems to be heavily biased with the burden of the Western ethnoparadigm. To attain the more universal concept of intelligence, it needs to synthesize various different ethnoparadigms from the Western culture, and to make more unitary one from them. Because ethnoparadigms consist of the clarification, elaboration and systematization of the general views about problematic concept, to get the more universal concept of intelligence, it is necessary to know the general opinions about the concept of intelligence, that is, the appropriate descriptors for “an intelligent person” in various cultures.
  This is the first report of the cross-cultural study of the concept of “an intelligent person” among six cultures, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Canada and Mexico. Here the total research design of this study is presented.

Key words : the concept of intelligence, ethnoparadigm, cross-cultural study, descriptors for “an intelligent person”, questionnaire about an intelligent person


10. 「頭の良い人」 の属性に関する比較文化的研究 U
     ― 「頭の良さ」 における性差―

お茶の水女子大学    石 田 英 子
お茶の水女子大学    藤 永   保

A cross-cultural study of the concept of “an intelligent person” U
―Sex differences in the descriptions of “an intelligent person”―

Ochanomizu University   ISHIDA, Eiko
Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA , Tamotsu

 The purpose of this study was to examine the sex differences about the concept of “an intelligent person” among the Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Taiwanese, Canadian, and Mexican. Male and female college students were asked to think of an intelligent person, and to rate each of 67 items describing the attributes of an intelligent person according to whether it fits that person or not. The results were as follows : 1) Three of these items, that is, quick thinking, grasping the gist, and having common sense, were the attributes found out commonly in the different cultures and both sexes. 2) However, many items were specific to both sexes and the each culture. 3) The attributes of the imaged intelligent male were more likely to be seen in the domain of intellectual competence and those of imaged intelligent famale in the domain of social competence, school achievements and writing skills. Sex-role stereotyping in the concept of intelligence was clarified. In three Asian countries except for Taiwan, sex-role differentiation about the concept was more manifested in the answers of male students as compared to those of female students. But in Canada and Mexico, sex-role differentiation was not seen in the answers of both male and female students.

Key words : intelligence, cross-cultural difference, sex difference, sex-role differentiation, descriptors for “an intelligent person”


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