発達研究 Vol. 3


T 原 著
1. 性別役割の形成における家族の影響 V

お茶の水女子大学   藤 永   保

Familial influences on acquisition and development of gender roles and identity V

Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 This is the third report of the study that aims to clarify the influences of the unique child rearing practices of a family called K. The K parents tried to minimize the present day sex roles differentiations and to get their seven children to acquire androgenous traits and attitudes, especially to the eldest female and male dyzygotic twins. This paper reports the results of the interview studies that focus the twins, Mo and Ta. In contrast with them, we interviewed seven student subjects, having both typical conformist and nonconformist scores about traditional sex roles questionnaire, extracted from 181 female and male university students. Moreover, we utilized the interview materials and available datum from other K family members. The tentative conclusions or future research hypotheses are as follows: Familial influences, especially parental ones, on acquisition and development of gender roles and identity are much basic. However, not only unique factors varying even among twins such as parent-child attachment relations, identification goals, sibling rivalries, biological sex differences themselves etc affect the developmental processes too, but also the social models of gender roles and attitudes presupposes the conditions of acquisition processes. Naturally it is impossible to confine all determining factors affecting acquisition of sex roles in the family situations.

Key words : gender role attitude, androgyny, effect of child rearing, sex differences, parental identification, interview method


2. 保育者の保育経験と保育観に関する研究  V

お茶の水女子大学          藤 永   保
群馬大学          藤 崎 眞知代
武蔵大学          熊 谷 真 弓

A Study on the Day Nursery Teacher's Views on Early Childhood Education and Care V

Ochanomizu University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu
Gunma University       FUJISAKI, Machiyo
Musashi University      KUMAGAI, Mayumi

 The purpose of this study was to clarify how different opinions about the early childhood education and care the Day Nursery teachers have according to the years of caring experience and regional features in Tokyo districts. It aimed also to investigate the factor structures of the desirable traits, abilities and knowledge of the Day Nursery teachers. The original questionnaire was made for this purpose. The subjects and procedure were the same as previous report (1986). Results were as follows: 1) On the desirable abilities of the Day Nursery teacher, 3 factors were extracted which were named as the motherhood vs. skill factor, the belief vs. speciality factor and the factor of attitude to think much of experience. 2) The teachers, thinking about their work as worthwhile and to need special education and training, considered the importance of basic psychological knowledge of human development rather than that of nursing skill. 3) It was found that in the present time, one of the most important role of Day Nursery teachers was to help mothers actively to increase their nursing ability.

Key words : Early childhood education and care, Day nursery teacher's attitude, Nursing ability, Traits and abilities of Day nursery teachers


3. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (T)聞き取り調査より

お茶の水女子大学     鈴 木 孝 子
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in children who have high performance on mathematics
(1) Interview with teachers

Ochanomizu University    SUZUKI, Takako
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In this study, we examined how preschoolers who were upper group in a private school (K-system) solve mathematical problems. Study-1 (in this paper) is interview with teachers of the K-system. And, study-2 (next paper) is case study of a 4-year-old child.
  In study-1, we asked teachers 4 questions. 1) how do upper group children solve mathematical problems of K-system?  2) How is their intelligence?  3) How is their personality?  4) what growing history do they have?
  As a result, we found that upper group children had high ability to memorize, and could solve the problem economically and flexibly.

Key words : Problem solving in mathematics, Preschooler, Interview with teachers


4. 数学的英才児の課題解決
    (U) case study より

お茶の水女子大学     小 林 順 子
お茶の水女子大学     藤 永   保

Problem solving in children who have high performance on Mathematics
(2) Case study

Ochanomizu University    KOBAYASHI, Junko
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 In study-2, we had case study. There is a pre-school girl who learns mathematics at a private school (K-system). As to observing this child solve mathematical problem, we followed Krutetskii's method.
  Our findings are as follows ; (1) When she faces problems, she has characteristic perceptions―grasps structure of the problem and penetrates solving procedure roughly, etc. (2) On solving process, she uses mental calculation frequently. (3) In her memories, forms of problems may combine with specified solutions.

Key words : Problem solving in Mathematics, preschooler, case study


5. 就学前幼児を持つ母親の異文化適応、帰国適応  U
    ―要因分析―

東京女子大学      佐 藤 淑 子
東京女子大学      大 野 裕 美
東京女子大学      柏 木 惠 子

The adjustment of Japanese mothers with pre-school children to a foreign culture and their re-entry into Japanese society U

Tokyo Woman's Christian University   SATO, Yoshiko
Tokyo Woman's Christian University   OHNO, Hiromi
Tokyo Woman's Christian University   KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 In our previous report (1986), we discussed the adjustment and re-entry adjustment of Japanese wives with pre-school children who accompanied their husbands to stay in the United States. We examined their life style : child rearing, husband-wife relationship, behavior etc., by comparing them with Japanese mothers with pre-schoolers who had no experiences of living abroad.
 In this second report, we divided the sample into groups in accordance with the different factors, such as length of stay, neighborhood, cultural values, and tried to extract the patterns of adjustment and re-adjustment in these groups.


6. 幼児の自己制御機能測定の試み

福島大学         氏 家 達 夫
東京外国語大学      田 島 信 元

Experimental assessment of self regulation in preschool children

Fukushima University             UJIIE, Tatsuo
Tokyo University of Foreign Studies   TAJIMA, Nobumoto

 In this study, two different functionings of self regulation were distinguished. One is to inhibit one's own behaviors and the other is to go into action. The former functioning assessed using resistance to temptation (RTT) procedure and the latter functioning assessed using self assertion test (SAT) newly developed in this study. The purpose of this report is to describe how children behave in RTT and SAT using 85 preschoolers aged 41-55 months as subjects. The results showed that the self regulatory functionings were observed in the behaviors in RTT and SAT.


7. 幼児の長さの概念の発達

慶応義塾大学    塚 野 弘 明

Development of the child's conception of length

Keio University    TSUKANO, Hiroaki

 The present study was designed to investigate the effects of no transformational operation and functional activity (f-activity) to elicit a relevant measurement procedures in length conservation task(e.g. using the bars to build the bridge), and to examine the interaction of the kinds of transformation and the f-activities. 97 nonconservers and 81 conservers from two age groups (5-and 6- year-olds,7-and 8-year-olds) in pretest were respectively assigned to one of 3 conditions : 1) no transformation and f-activity, 2) transformation and f-activity, 3) no transformation and no f-activity. And 13 nonconservers of the younger group were also assigned to the additional condition : 4) transformation and another type of f-activity (considering the bars as walking roads). The subjects were given 5 length conservation tasks with the different kinds of transformation under each condition. The success rates of nonconservers were 1)73%, 2)46%, 3)31% in younger group and 1)80%, 2)65%, 3)63% in older group. The f-activity of building the bridge had an effect on the task including the transformation of the bar position, but had no effect on the transformation of bending the bar. While the f-activity of the walking road had an effect on both tasks. Implications of these results were discussed concerning the relations of the functional activity and the development of the child's conception of length.


8. 幼児の推論における概念的カテゴリの機能

京都大学         菅   眞佐子 
甲南女子大学             梅 本 堯 夫

The role of conceptual categories in young children's inferences

Kyoto University           SUGA, Masako
Konan Women's University    UMEMOTO, Takao

 This study examined the role of conceptual categories in young children's inferences. Children of 5 years old and 6 years old were presented with pictures of unfamiliar objects and requested to make inferences on some of their attributes. Half of the children were instructed the category labels of the objects (with-category condition), and the other half were not (control condition). Two types of objects were examined per category ; one was an atypical but real object of the category, the other was an artificially created object which was still more atypical than the other one. The rate of yes responses to the questions in with-category condition was revealed to be higher than that of control condition for both stimulus types, suggesting that children of this age were able to make use of category information even when stimuli were quite atypical by their appearance. However this effect of category label was less effective in 6-year-olds with artificially created objects. The analysis of reasons for inferences also suggested that the strategies used by the children of with-category condition and those of control condition may be different in the degree of reliance on conceptual categories as a basis of inferences.


9. 児童における物語の記憶と理解に及ぼす音楽の効果

甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫
甲南女子大学     圓 井 淳 子

Effects of background sounds and music on memory and comprehension of tales in children.

Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao
Konan Women's University   MARUI, Atsuko

 Thirty-six children (third graders) listened to two tales of about seven-minutes long each told with picture cards, that is usually called as a style of 'paper dramas' in Japan. Tales were presented either with (a) music and sounds relevant to each scenery of the tales, or (b) with music and sounds incompatible with each scenery of the tales, or (c) withno music and sounds. Memory and comprehension of the tales were tested by 10 or 12 questions immediately after presentation of each tale and with 6 final comprehensive questions by the experimenter. Results showed that memory and comprehension of tales were bestfor the condition (a), i.e. played with relevant music and sounds, and worst for the condition (c), i.e. with no music. However there were tendencies that incompatible music and sounds sometimes induced misleading inferences while memories were always improved by the music and sounds.


10. 児童用友人関係概念測定尺度の作成

甲南女子大学      平 良 洋 子
甲南女子大学      梅 本 堯 夫

Construction of Friendship Conception Scale

Konan Women's University    TAIRA, Yoko
Konan Women's University    UMEMOTO, Takao

 This study attempted to construct a new scale on children's conceptions of friendship. The scale named as Friendship Conception (FC) Scale was standardized on the data of children of first through sixth grade (100 boys and 102 girls). After repeated item analysis, 24 items were selected from preliminary 30 items which were taken from previous researches by Bigelow (1977), Eason (1985), Selman (1976) and Youniss (1978). Results showed that internal consistency (Cronbach α) of the FC scale was .83 and the test-retest reliabilities ranged from .54 to .88. Criterion related validity (correlation coefficient between FC sores and teacher's assessment scores on developmental stage of children's friendship conceptions) ranged from .45 to .84 for each grade. The results of the ANOVA revealed that : 1) Children of higher grades had higher scores in FC Scale than the lower graders, but the increasing rate was not linear. 2) Except for first and second graders, girls obtained significantly higher scores than boys.


11. 児童における選択的記銘の検討
      ―学業達成度と選択様式の交互作用―

京都大学        高 橋 雅 延
甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫

The study of selective memory in children : An interaction of academic successfulness and free choice

Kyoto University           TAKAHASHI, Masanobu
Konan Women's University    UMEMOTO, Takao

 The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of free choice on the ability to differentiate to-be-remembered (R ) and to-be-forgotten (F) items in children's selective memory. Academically successful and less successful third graders were presented with two lists of words, some of which they were instructed to remember and some of which they were instructed to forget. Half of the R items were chosen by the subjects (choice list), and the remainder were selected randomly by the  experimenter (force list). At the end of the lists, subjects were asked to recall and recognize the all of the words. As a result, R items were more remembered than F items irrespective of type of choice and academic successfulness. Allowing subjects to choose the R items enhanced the performance of R items as well as F items. More importantly, choice words were more recalled than force words only for successful children, not for less successful children. These results were discussed in terms of the alternation of mnemonic strategies and the children's metamemory.


12. 女子短大生における性役割観と職業をめぐる価値観

京都大学        遠 藤 由 美
甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫

Sex-role Concept and Vocational Values in Female Junior College Students

Kyoto University          ENDO, Yumi
Konan Women's University    UMEMOTO, Takao

 This study was to investigate differences in vocational values among three types of female junior college students. The students of the first group, who highly evaluated Masculinity, intended putting larger amount of energies into work throughout their life, to get self-actualization through it. The students of the second group, who placed higher evaluation on Humanity, desired to have both enough money to enjoy their life. and self-actualization, but the latter tendency was relatively weak. The students of the third group, who placed higher evaluation on Feminity, did not have strong motives for work, and energies into work were least in this group.


13. 日常的経験が豊かな領域における形式的ルールの学習
      ―静力学のルールの獲得―

発達科学研究教育センター      塩 川 英 男
東京大学                 鈴 木 宏 昭
東京大学                 村 山   功

Formal Rule Never Works in Isolation : Rule Learning in Statics

Center of Developmental Education and Research     SHIOKAWA, Hideo
University of Tokyo                               SUZUKI, Hiroaki
University of Tokyo                               MURAYAMA, Isao

 People have naive concepts about physical events. A number of researches revealed that these concepts are sometimes obstacles for learning rules that are taught in physics course. One of these concepts is about composition and decomposition of force. People with little knowledge of physics insist that decomposed forces should be smaller than original force, regardless of the angle along which original force is decomposed. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the relationships between the naive concepts and a formal rule that requires the construction of parallelogram in decomposing force. In experiment 1, the instruction was designed to remind subjects of the rule and emphasize the usefulness of it. In experiment 2, the more detailed instruction was provided. In experiment 3, we regarded the rule as a problem-solving procedure and designed the instruction that included exercises of constructing parallelogram. The results showed that none of the instructions facilitated learning the formal rule and subjects' reasoning was not based on the formal rule but on their naive concept. Subjects still considered that decomposed forces were smaller than original force, even though the angle of decomposition was 150 degree. These results directly contradict the current learning theories in cognitive psychology, and indicate that the learning mechanisms which operate in semantically rich domain are completely different from the ones in the domains where learners have little prior knowledge.


14. 「経緯的概念観」粗描 

慶應義塾大学    横 山 信 文

A Sketch of the “Plot Metatheory” of Concepts

Keio University    YOKOYAMA, Nobufumi

 This article has three purposes about concept and its acquisition. They are (1) to criticize so called common property theory of concept (especially J. S. Bruner's one) by means of its irrelevancy to descript natural and/or scientific concepts and the learning process of them, (2) to propose an alternate metatheory which is called “plot metatheory” here by instanciations and speculations, and (3) using that new metatheory, to descript a particular learning process of a biological concept in order to show the efficacy of that metatheory.
  A variety of examples of concepts, which are taken from various domains such as physical science, mathematical transformations, study of visual perception, semantics of language, as well as biology, are introduced in order to testify the metatheory.
  The term “metatheory” used here means “a plausible theory about how to make theories”. And the term “plot” used here means approximately “detailed making-up process of objects”.


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