発達研究 Vol. 2


T 原 著
1. 性別役割の形成における家族の影響 U

お茶の水女子大学    藤 永   保
法政大学                     熊 谷 真 弓
群馬大学                     藤 崎 眞知代

 Familial influences on acquisition and development of gender roles and identity U

Ochanomizu University  FUJINAGA , Tamotsu
Hosei University      KUMAGAI, Mayumi
Gunma University     FUJISAKI, Machiyo

 This is the second report following the first one that aims to clarify the influences of the unique child rearing practices of the family called K. The K parents wanted to minimize the present-day sex role differentiations and to get their seven children to acquire androgynous traits, especially to the eldest male and female dyzygotic twins. But in their infancies, their grandmother mainly took care of them and her influence also played an important role on their acquisition of gender roles, so the parental influences cannot be expected to act as an only pure factor. Here, we try to know how extreme the positions of seven children in the continuum of gender role attitudes in normal population are and how far the difference between the twin's positions is, using the method of questionnaire survey. The positions of seven children are all in the negative side of the usual sex role orientations and the twin's difference is relatively small.

Key words : gender role attitude, androgyny, effects of child rearing, sex differences


2. 保育者の保育経験と保育観に関する研究  U

群馬大学           藤 崎 眞知代
法政大学           熊 谷 真 弓
お茶の水女子大学      藤 永   保

A Study on the Day Nursery Teachers' Views on Early Childhood Education and CareU

Gunma University       FUJISAKI, Machiyo
Hosei University        KUMAGAI, Mayumi
Ochanomizu University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

  The purpose of this study is to clarify how different opinions about the early childhood education and care the Day Nursery teachers have according to the years of caring experience and regional features in Tokyo. The original questionnaire was made for this purpose and performed to 358 public day nursery teachers of two contrastive regions in Tokyo, distributing into 5 increasing grades of experience. It was concluded that the opinions about the aspiration of their working programs, the motivation to the occupation, and the capacitiesof the Day Nursery teacher were different according to their degrees of teaching experiences. On the satisfaction with occupation, their professional attitudes, the opinions about the function of the Day Nursery, and the influences of teacher's sex, we found some differences between two regions. And many teachers pointed out that most parents became weaker and weaker in their child care skills and motivations.

Key words : Early childhood education and care, Day nursery teacher's attitude, Sex-differentiated discipline


3. 就学前幼児を持つ母親の異文化適応・帰国適応  

東京女子大学      佐 藤 淑 子
東京女子大学      大 野 裕 美
東京女子大学      柏 木 惠 子

The adjustment of Japanese mothers with pre-school children to a foreign culture and their re-entry into Japanese society

Tokyo Woman's Christian University    SATO, Yoshiko
Tokyo Woman's Christian University    ONO, Hiromi
Tokyo Woman's Christian University    KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The purpose of this paper is to study the adjustment and re-entry adjustment of Japanese wives with pre-school children who accompanied their husbands on overseassojourns. At present, there are plenty of studies about adjustment to a foreign culture and re-entry adjustment to Japanese culture dealing school age children and business-man. However, there is scarcely such studies with data concerning wives and pre-school children.
 Subjects : 76 mothers with pre-schoolers who returned to Japan after several years in the United States.
  Methods : A multiple choice questionnaire consisting of 72 items which can be grouped as follows :
1) their background information 2) change in their way of living before, during and after their U.S. sojourn 3) evaluation and feedback of their pre-school children's behavior through their readjustment process 4) their evaluation of Japanese and American behavior patterns after their experience of living in the U.S. 5) their inclination towards Japanese traditional values 6) perception of their own closeness to American culture and society 7) reaction of friends and acquaintances on their return to Japan.
  Items from groups 3, 4 and 5 were also answered by Japanese mothers with pre-schoolers who had no experience living abroad. This test was done in order to make a comparison between the two groups of mothers.
  Results :
1) During their stay in the U.S., Japanese mothers were able to adapt to the American life style, however upon returning to Japan, they save up that kind of life style and re-adapted to the Japanese way of life.
2) There was almost no difference between the behavior of returning pre-school children and those children brought up in Japan. However, returning mothers seemed to have a tendency to restrict their children's “Americanized manners”.
3) Returning mothers valued “verbal expression” and refused the Japanese style of “co-sleeping with their children” even after they re-adjusted to Japan.
4) Compared to Japanese mothers without overseas experience, returning mothers gave higher evaluations to traditional Japanese values such as the seniority system and modesty.
  Conclusion :
  This adjustment and re-adjustment pattern of Japanese mothers can be explained by the group oriented attitude of Japanese people. Since returning mothers were well aware of the high pressure of homogenuity in Japanese society, they tried to abandon American features in their life style as soon as possible when they returned to Japan.
  However, our data shows that they valued “verbal expression” highly and slept separately from their young children apparent effects of American culture. At the same time, they also preserved traditional Japanese values. These rather contradictory attitudes in returning mothers, we have concluded to be the new equilibrium of adjustment they have reached after their trans-cultural experience.


4 .幼児の対人認知
  ―Personal Spaceからの一考察―

東京女子大学   唐 澤 真 弓
東京女子大学   柏 木 惠 子

Person Perception and Personal Space in Preschool Children

Tokyo Woman's Christian University   KARASAWA, Mayumi
Tokyo Woman's Christian University   KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The purpose of this study was to examine person perception and personal space in pre-school children. Two experiments were administered to the subjects to evaluate social relationships with peers and to access personal space. The results showed that children's personal space was closely related with psychological distance in their peer relations. The developmental implication of personal space were discussed.


5. 幼児における音高およびオクターブ類似性の認知

甲南女子大学          梅 本 堯 夫
京都大学                 菅   眞佐子

Cognition of pitch and octave similarity in children

Konan Women's College   UMEMOTO, Takao
Kyoto University        SUGA, Masako

 Children of five years old (9 boys and 12 girls) and six years old (10 boys and 11 girls) were tested on the following four tasks with a keyboard instrument ; 1) to find a key producing a tone of same pitch as a tone given by the experimenter ; 2) to find a key producing a tone most “similar” to a tone given by the experimenter ; 3) to compare the relative similarities of two pairs of tones different in pitch distances ; 4) to compare the relative similarities of two pairs, one composed of two tones in small pitch distance, the other composed of two tones in octave. Results showed that for children of these ages similarity judgement of tones in a dimension of pitch distance is easier than in octave relation. An influence of musical training on the cognition of octave similarity was found among six year old children.


6. 幼児における event memory の構造
    ―連続したシーンの分割課題を用いて―

京都大学              菅   眞佐子
甲南女子大学       梅 本 堯 夫

Structure of event memory in children : an analysis based on groupings of sequential scenes.

Kyoto University        SUGA, Masako
Konan Women's College   UMEMOTO, Takao

 5-year-olds, 6-year-olds and college students were asked to group 18 sequential scenes representing a story about a boy. The sequence consisted of scenes of 3 events, “get on a bus”, “buy something at a supermarket”, “eat at a restaurant”, and some other filler scenes. Results showed that children seldom grouped scenes according to the script-like sequence, while college students did so in most cases. Developmental trends revealed were further discussed in relation to the structure of event memory in children.


7. 子どもの発話行為と対人関係技能の発達

愛知県立芸術大学        池 上 知 子
甲南女子大学                梅 本 堯 夫

Children's speech acts and the development of social skills

Aichi Prefectural University of Fine Arts   IKEGAMI, Tomoko
Konan Women's College              UMEMOTO, Takao

 This study explores how children adjust and modify their verbal style according to social situations. The study focuses on linguistic politeness when making a request (Analysis I ) and when being refused (AnalysisU). Seventy-two second graders (35 boys and 37 girls) and 80 fifth graders (44 boys and 36 girls) served as subjects. They were asked to write down what sentences they would produce in the given situations. The data showed that children are more likely to use mitigated expressions in request with unfamiliar others ( a shopkeeper at a bookstore, a stranger on the telephone) than with familiar others ( mother, father, a classmate). The data also showed that children change their linguistic politeness according to the familiarity of persons they interact with, when their request is refused. The relation between linguistic politeness and the development of social skills to maintain good interaction was discussed.


8. 3つ山課題で「自己中心的エラー」をする幼児の空間認知について

東京大学    鈴 木  忠

Objective Coding Produces Egocentric Responses :
A Broader Perspective for the Research of Spatial Cognition

University of Tokyo   SUZUKI, Tadashi

 In the perspective-taking problem, it has been assumed that the arrays are coded as units and oriented to the viewer. But from the ecological point of view, the arrays are coded primarily as a part of the larger spatial framework, and such an objective coding produces “egocentric” responses. The body-turning task revealed that the objective coding was dominant for children. Then to answer correctly in the perspective-taking task, the array-viewer relation should be isolated cognitively from the outside frame-work, and children have difficulty with such a mental operation. Finally an experiment was run. In reconstructing the perspective of the agent, the subject was instructed to turn his body so that the agent-array (presented) orientation might be aligned with the subject-array (reconstructed) one. Children made more “correct” responses than they did in the standard situation.


9. こどもの一対一対応の知識はいかに表象されているか

東京大学教育学部        鈴 木 宏 昭

The Knowledge Representation of One-to-one Correspondence in Children.

University of Tokyo   SUZUKI, Hiroaki

 We propose that children's knowledge of one-to-one correspondence is neither abstract as formulated by Piaget, nor context-specific. Instead, the representation is quasi-abstract. Our hypothesis is that the representation is insensitive to the formal structure of the given problem, but quite sensitive to the semantic or functional aspects of the problem. Two experiments were conducted to explore this hypothesis, using Piagetian number conservation task. Both experiments showed that children have the functional schema that creates one-to-one correspondence semantically. And when this schema were triggered, correct response increased significantly. These results were discussed in terms of the knowledge representation problems in cognitive science.


10. 選択的記銘の発達
      ―符号化と検索抑制の交互作用―

京都大学      高 橋 雅 延
甲南女子大学      梅 本 堯 夫

The development of selective memory :
An interaction of encoding and retrieval inhibition

Kyoto University        TAKAHASHI, Masanobu
Konan Women's College   UMEMOTO, Takao

 The purpose of the present study was to investigate the development of the ability to differentiate to-be-remembered (R) and to-be-forgotten (F) items in selective memory. Subjects were 72 first graders and 72 sixth graders in an elementary school. Directed forgetting paradigm was used in presenting subject with a list of words, some of which they were instructed to remember and some of which they were instructed to forget. At the midpoint in the list, half the subjects were given an instruction to forget the preceding words, the remaining subjects were not. As a result, R items were more recalled than F items and the degree of differentiation between R and F items was greater for sixth graders than for first graders. A midlist instruction to forget the first half of a list reduced later recall to the R items. It has been suggested that the alternation of encoding processes plays more significant role in the development of selective memory than retrieval inhibition.


11. 問題解決による概念形成
      ―概念の核と理論の形成―

東京大学教育学部   村 山  功

Concept Formation through Problem Solving
―The core of a concept and the concept formation―

University of Tokyo    MURAYAMA, Isao

 In the previous study, I and my colleague found that in the course of explanation why some events occur subjects often changed their ideas how gas acts. In this study we take the mental model approach and assume that a concept is a collection of input-output rules. Along this assumption we interpret the previous result, and make a hypothesis that in the course of explanation people detect their lack of knowledge, and to amend for it they take a corresponding part of event to be explained into their knowledge as input-output relation. An experiment reveals that our hypothsis cannot cover the whole process of concept formation. From this result we consider that people not only take in the causal relations in the physical world as it is, but try to make sense of them. Finally, some related ideas about concept formation are mentioned.


12. 女子高校生における性役割観とキャリア志向性

京都大学           遠 藤 由 美
甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫

Sex -role Concept and Career Aspirations in Female High School Students

Kyoto University       ENDO, Yumi
Konan Women's College  UMEMOTO, Takao

 This study was conducted to investigate differences in career aspirations among three types of female high school students. The students of the first group, who placed higher evaluation on Feminity, chose to get easier, not responsible, feminine job, intending not to work after their marriage or childbirth. The students of the second group, who placed higher evaluation on Humanity, also preferred feminine job, but had greater confidence in their ability, desiring to obtain more special professions. However, they did not consider occupations as their concrete future goal, and had plans of exclusive participation in home and family life. The students of the third group, who highly evaluated on Masculinity, desired to enter traditionally male career area, and to work without interruption, putting larger amount of energies into work throughout their life.


13. Parental didactics and cognitive achievement in young children :
   A comparison of family life in Japan and the United States

Faculty of Education University of Tokyo        AZUMA, Hiroshi
Infancy Studies Program New York University    Marc H. Bornstein
University of Tokyo                     OGINO, Misako
New York University                    Catherine Tamis-LeMonda

 We are conducting research into the nature of cultural differences in family life pertinent to advanced cognitive performance and academic achievement in young children. Our research is targeted to assess how Japanese and American infants and parental child-rearing practices may differ ; the research is predicated on two related empirical findings that, first, childrearing practices have differential consequences for childhood cognitive achievement and , second, Japanese and American preschool children differ in the levels of their cognitive abilities. To accomplish this research, we have founded a Japanese-American collaboration and are pursuing joint research on family contributions to the growth of cognitive competence in children in Japan that parallels ongoing research on the same family practices in America. Psychological differences between Japanese and Americans are striking in several respects, and for this reason these two particular societies merit comparison (Azuma,1984;Bornstein, 1986; Stevenson, Azuma, Hakuta, 1986). Certainly, determining which child-rearing strategies most efficaciously promote the growth of cognitive performance in children is a compelling cultural goal.


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