発達研究 Vol.14


1. ダウン症児を持つ母親の養育態度の調査研究 V
  ― 1.告知のあり方と養育態度およびサポートの関係 2.自由記述の分析 ―

お茶の水女子大学  渡辺千歳     
お茶の水女子大学  品川玲子     
国際基督教大学    荻原美文     
お茶の水女子大学  藤永 保     
公文教育研究会    佐々木丈夫

A Survey of child rearing styles among mothers having children with Down's syndrome V
― 1. Influences of “Kokuchi” (notice of the syndrome) on child Rearing styles and Support Relations 2. Analysis of the mother's free answers and observations ―

Ochanomizu University           WATANABE, Chitose
Ochanomizu University           SHINAGAWA, Reiko
International Christian University    OGIHARA, Mifumi
Ochanomizu University           FUJINAGA, Tamotsu
The Kumon Institute of Education    SASAKI, Takeo

 This is the third report of a series of studies on child rearing styles among 138 mothers who have children with Down's syndrome. The report consists of two parts. In the first part, based on quantitative analysis, the following results were (1) “Kokuchi” and its effects on the mothers' child rearing styles have improved past thirty years. (2) The contents of recovery from the shock of Kokuchi and child rearing styles intended to positive actions and motivations of early therapeutic education were interrelated. (3) Mothers were well supported by their family members, parents having children with Down's syndrome, professionals (including doctors, instructors and schoolteachers), and books / newspapers. In the second part, based on qualitative analysis of the mothers' free answers and observations, what kinds of “Kokuchi ”mothers needed was examined. At Kokuchi, mothers wanted correct and up-to-date explanation of Down's syndrome, information on early therapeutic education, doctor's encouragement, and their attitudes without prejudice against Down's syndrome.

Key words : Children with Down's syndrome, Mother's child rearing styles, Kokuchi (notice of the syndrome)


2. 早期教育の効果に関する調査(T)
  ―質問紙法による親への追跡調査 ―

女子栄養短期大学   田中規子
お茶の水女子大学   藤永 保
公文教育研究会     佐々木丈夫
公文教育研究会     池永真紀

Effects of Early Education (T)
―Questionnaire Survey to Parents ―

Kagawa Nutrition Junior College   TANAKA, Noriko
Ochanomizu University         FUJINAGA, Tamotsu
Kumon Institute of Education    SASAKI, Takeo
Kumon Institute of Education    IKENAGA, Maki

 How does early education influence the child development? To investigate this question,we carried out a questionnaire survey to the parents of the children who got early education from 0 to 2 years old in K-system and are of school-age now. In this study, we asked the parents 34 questions that include the children's conditions, achievement of study,interests, aspects of early developments, personality pattern, and parents' expectation etc. In study 1(this paper), we described the children's conditions and aspects of early developments. The children were in good health and of average physique, and their early developments maintained normal speed. Other items and their relations are examined in detail in study 2.

Key words : Early education, Special education for the gifted, Aspects of development


3. 就学前児の社会的認知的発達に関する縦断的研究(1)−2
  ― 社会的場面における自己制御機能の発達 ―

鶴川女子短期大学     佐藤淑子
白百合女子大学       目良秋子
白百合女子大学       田矢幸江
白百合女子大学       柏木惠子

A Longitudinal Study on the Social and Cognitive Development of Japanese Pre-school Children (1)-2
― Development of Self-Regulation in Interpersonal Conflicts ―

Tsurukawa Women's Junior College   SATO, Yoshiko
Shirayuri College               MERA, Akiko
Shirayuri College               TAYA, Yukie
Shirayuri College               KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 In our previous report(1999), we examined the reasons why children regulate themselves in self-assertive and self-inhibitory situations as well as the relationships between anticipation of acceptance and rejection by alter and pre-schoolers' self-regulation. This time, we recoded the reasons of self-regulation into two categories: self-oriented and other-oriented reasons. The analysis showed that the dimension of self-inhibition develops earlier than the dimension of self-assertion in Japanese pre-school children. Sex difference was found in that girls develop self-regulation in interpersonal relationships earlier compared to boys and that girls tend to refer to other-oriented reasons, while boys tend to mention self-oriented reasons more often in explaining their patterns of behavior.

Key words : Self-Regulation (Self-Assertion, Self-Inhibition), Self-other relationships, Pre-school children, Interpersonal conflicts


4. 園・教師のしつけ観と幼児の自己制御機能

白百合女子大学  野村房代
白百合女子大学  目良秋子
白百合女子大学  田矢幸江
白百合女子大学  柏木惠子

A Study of Relationship between Teachers' Attitudes and Children's Self-regulation

Shirayuri College  NOMURA, Fusayo
Shirayuri College  MERA, Akiko
Shirayuri College  TAYA, Yukie
Shirayuri College  KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The first purpose of this study is to clarify teacher's opinions and attitudes towardschildren's development and education, and to make it clear that each pre-school has its own characteristics. The second is to examine the effects of teacher's opinion and attitude towards children's self-regulation development. 489 boys and 473 girls were rated by pre-school teachers on their self-regulatory behavior. Other questionnaires administered to teachers asked for their opinions and attitudes toward children. The results show that each pre-school has its own characteristics. Different developmental patterns in children's self-regulation were found among 7 pre-schools. It was also found that self-inhibition was more pronounced in those teachers' classes that have higher developmental expectations and that stress children's independence.

Key words : Teachers' opinion and attitudes, Self-regulation (Self-assertion, Self-inhibition), Pre-school children, Teacher-child relations


5. 子どもの絵の 「子どもらしさ」 の分析

白百合女子大学  鈴木 忠
白百合女子大学  柏木惠子

The Analysis of Impressions Unique to Children's Drawings

Shirayuri College  SUZUKI, Tadashi
Shirayuri College  KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The present study investigates impressions unique to children's drawings in the theoretical context of the gain/loss perspective; the impressions are supposed to decline towards adolescence. Two hundred and seven college students and 119 kindergarten teachers were required (1) to tell children's drawings from those which adults had produced so as to look like children's drawings and (2) to estimate impressions of both kinds of drawings children's drawings were judged as drawn by children better than adult' “childlike” drawings as drawn by adult. The comparison was made between the drawings of which drawers were judged correctly by many subjects and those of which drawers were not so well inferred. It was found that the impression of “dynamism” is associated specifically with children's drawings which were judged very easily as those drawn by children. The results suggest that “dynamism” may be an impression unique to children's drawings.

Key words : Children's drawings, Dynamism, Gain/loss perspective


6. 育児期における専業主婦の個人化欲求
  ― 経済的資源へのアクセス志向性との関連を中心に ―

白百合女子大学  平山順子

Need for Individualization of Un-employed Women with Preschoolers
― Mainly its Relationship with the Views on Accessing Economic Resources ―

Shirayuri College  HIRAYAMA, Junko

 The purpose of this study was to examine what and how much the un-employed women with preschoolers have the need for individualization, to examine the demographic variables associated with the need, and to analyze the relationship between the need and the views on sharing in child-rearing and housekeeping and on accessing economic resources. A questionnaire was used. Subjects were 218 un-employed women with preschoolers in nuclear families. The main results were as follows. (1) Factor analysis of the need for individualization extracted two factors, “need for living independently” and “need for living separately”. (2) The educational background were significantly related to both dimensions of the need; the higher their educational background were, the stronger need for individualization they had. (3) The need for individualization were found to have significant association with views on accessing economic resources.

Key words : Individualization, Mothers with preschoolers, The views on accessing economic resources, Women's issues


7. 幼児の分与判断と分与行動に及ぼす親密性の効果

京都大学  郷式 徹
        梅本堯夫

The Effect of Familiarity on Preschool Children's Sharing Judgement and Behavior

Kyoto University   GOUSHIKI, Toru
              UMEMOTO, Takao

 The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between young children's behaviors and the development of a concept of justice, of sympathy and their the effect of familiarity. In an experiment, 16 5-year-olds (mean 58.9 months), 18 5.5-year-olds (mean 67.2 months) and 19 6-year-olds (mean 74.6 months) were asked whether they wanted to share cards with someone who was familiar to them or with a stranger in a hypothetical situation. The groups were then observed for whether they shared cards in an actual situation. The results indicated that 6-year-olds have developed a tendency to adjust their own behaviors in proportion to the degree of the familiarity. Toward familiar individuals, they expressed particularly significant behavior based on the stage of justice conceptualization that derives from notions of strict equality. However, they acted toward unfamiliar individuals based on the stage of justice conceptualization that derives from the desire to fulfill their own wishes. It was also observed that the change in behaviors was not only based on the development of justice conceptions butalso on the effects of the development of sympathy.

Key words : Preschool children, A concept of justice, Sympathy


8. 芸術的才能の特異性
  ― 音楽才能の場合 ―

梅本堯夫

Exceptional Abilities in Art Domain
― Musical Savant and Williams Syndrome ―

UMEMOTO, Takao

 Independence of musical ability from general intelligence are discussed in reference to the researches of Sloboda et al. (1988), Miller (1989), Lenhoff et al. (1997), and Levitin & Bellugi (1998).

Key words : Musical savant, Williams syndrome, Musical ability


9. 社会的意思決定に対する理解・態度の発達に関する日米比較研究
  ― 構造的特質及び発達的変化 ―

白百合女子大学    柿沼美紀
白百合女子大学    宮下孝広
東京都立教育研究所  芳賀明子
東京都立教育研究所  赤坂寅男
東京都立教育研究所  久家義久
文京女子大学     東  洋

A Development of Social Decision Making Process in Japanese and American Students
― Structural and Developmental Analysis ―

Shirayuri College                        KAKINUMA, Miki
Shirayuri College                        MIYASHITA, Takahiro
Tokyo Metropolitan Education Research Institute      HAGA, Akiko
Tokyo Metropolitan Education Research Institute      AKASAKA, Torao
Tokyo Metropolitan Education Research Institute      KUGE, Yoshihisa
Bunkyo Women's University                 AZUMA, Hiroshi

 How students in Japan and US acquire knowledge about the social decision making processes and reflect such knowledge to behavior is studied. A questionnaire was developed by both US and Japanese members including following instruments to capture the development of socila decision making processes among Japan and US youth: the locus of responsibility, distribution of wealth and other values such as trust, social comparison, and internal locus of control. Sixth graders, 8th graders and 10th graders in both cultures participated. The results show that much more grade differences are observed in US students than Japanese students. Also the structural analysis suggest that while both student groups responded similarly to certain items, their reasoning behind may not be the same.

Key words : Social decision making process, Distribution of wealth, Japan-US comparison


10. 高校生の学業成績を予測する認知的要因
   ― 他者との関係を含意する構成概念とCAMI構成概念とを対比して ―

白百合女子大学  宮下孝広
東京女子大学    唐澤真弓
白百合女子大学  真島真里
文京女子大学    東  洋

Japanese High School Students' Relationistic Beliefs about School Performance
― Beyond CAMI Constructs ―

Shirayuri College                MIYASHITA, Takahiro
Tokyo Women's Christian University   KARASAWA, Mayumi
Shirayuri College                MASHIMA, Mari
Bunkyo Women's University               AZUMA, Hiroshi

 The agency-efficacy beliefs, as assessed by CAMI questionnaire, have shown to predict school performance in several countries. However, CAMI includes only those means to attain good school performance which are thought to be attributed to independent self, such as effort and ability. Because Japanese culture is often characterized as relationally oriented, we hypothesized that the school performance would also be predicted by items concerning students' relationships with others who are significant in their learning environments.
 Thus, we added 28 items to CAMI, and administered this new questionnaire to 400 Japanese 11th graders. New items were designed to assess one's perception of the expectations from parents and teachers, and their role relationships with their peers.
 Results showed that both the perception of parents' and teachers' expectations and the perception of the self as assuming a teaching role in the learning situations significantly predicted school performance, even when Agency: Effort and Agency: Ability constructs were partialled out.
 We concluded that those relationistic efficacy beliefs had independent contributions in predicting academic performance beyond original CAMI agency-efficacy beliefs.

Key words : CAMI, Perceived control, School performance, Relationistic beliefs, Interdependent self


11. 文化心理学の方法をめぐって
   ― 媒介概念としての文化的スクリプト ―

文京女子大学  東   洋

Methodological Considerations on Cultural Psychology
― Store of Cultural Scripts as an Intervening Construct ―

Bunkyo Women's University  AZUMA, Hiroshi

 As a mediator for the cultures to influence oral judgment, we propose the role of the belief about how things start, proceed and end. It is a prototype story, or a script. A person who accuses an industrial firm for subcontracting only long-standing partners has a certain ethical code. But the possession of an ethical code is not enough for making judgment. The person will need to collect information about the antecedent and resulting circumstances of this practice. In other words, moral judgment needs the event in question be imbedded in a story. Since each culture stores a certain distribution of stories and scripts, we assume that the cross-cultural difference in moral judgment can at least partially be attributed to the difference in scripts that are likely to be used.
 Among many possible combinations, we will primarily deal with US-Japan comparison because we want to study cultures which represent drastically different socio-cultural tradition with minimal confounding of standard of living, education and industry. US and Japan seemed to satisfy those requirements.

Key words : Development, Script, Culture


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