発達研究 Vol.13


1. ダウン症児を持つ母親の養育態度の調査研究 U
  ―事前の知識及び告知のあり方と養育態度―

お茶の水女子大学     品川玲子
お茶の水女子大学     渡辺千歳
国際基督教大学      荻原美文
東洋英和女学院大学   藤永 保
公文教育研究会      佐々木丈夫

A Survey of Child Rearing Styles among Mothers Having Children with Down's Syndrome U
―Influences of “Kokuchi” or of Preliminary Knowledge on Child Rearing Styles―

Ochanomizu University         SHINAGAWA, Reiko
Ochanomizu University         WATANABE, Chitose
International Christian University  OGIHARA, Mifumi
Toyoeiwa-Jogakuin University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu
The Kumon Institute of Education  SASAKI, Takeo

 This is the second report of a series of studies on child rearing styles among mothers who have children with Down's syndrome. Based on the questionnaire data answered by 138 such mothers, the following results were reported. (1) “Kokuchi” influenced the child rearing styles of the mothers without the preliminary knowledge regarding Down's syndrome. (“Kokuchi” means doctor's informing of the fact that this child has Down's syndrome.) Those mothers who had experienced good “Kokuchi” (e.g., doctor's kind attitude at “Kokuchi”) tended to have positive child rearing styles on early therapeutic education. (2) Mothers both with and without such knowledge who had some little hope or kept calm at “Kokuchi” tended to recover from the shock that their child has Down's syndrome. (3) Present child rearing styles among mothers were still influenced by "Kokuchi" which had been eleven years ago in average.

Keywords: children with Down's syndrome, mother's child rearing styles, early therapeutic education, “Kokuchi”, preliminary knowledge


2. ダウン症児における早期療育の効果
  ―臨界期効果の検討―

世田谷区教育センター   吉野展世
日本赤十字社        辻田 岳
東洋英和女学院大学    藤永 保
公文教育研究会      深谷正徳

A Study of the Effect of Early Therapeutic Education for Children with Down's Syndrome
―An Examination of its Critical Period―

The Educational Center of Setagaya   YOSHINO, Nobuyo
Japanese Red Cross Society       TUJITA, Gaku
Toyoeiwa-jogakuin University       FUJINAGA, Tamotsu
The Kumon Institute of Education    FUKAYA, Masanori

 This is one of a series of studies on child rearing styles among mothers who have children with Down's syndrome, focused on early therapeutic education. In recent years, professionals of this problem have been recognizing the considerable improving effects of early therapeutic education for those children. However, the critical period problem still remains unresolved, such as, in what age a child should begin such educational programs, whether the earlier the better effect or not, and if there is a definite and absolute developmental period for improving the child's deficiency.
 In this survey with interview method, 21 subjects were chosen based on the previous questionnaire and the problem of critical period on the therapeutic effects is examined by these case reports.

Keywords : children with Down's syndrome, early therapeutic education, critical period


3. 日米国際結婚における夫婦間の調整課題 (2)
  ―子育て観を中心に―

白百合女子大学  矢吹理恵

Adjustment Strategies for Reconciling Differences in Childrearing Ideas and Practices in Japanese-American and Japanese-Japanese Couples

Shirayuri College YABUKI, Rie

 The purpose of this study is to obtain qualitative information which would provide a basis for hypotheses which explain differences in strategies for adjustment of childrearing ideas and practices in Japanese husband-Japanese wife couples and American husband-Japanese wife couples. A purpose a preparatory questionnaire was administered to establish topics for an in-depth interview of 16 Couples. The informants are Japanese wives−eight with American husbands, and eight with Japanese husbands. Informants were grouped by demographic factors such as age and the wife's employment status. This study found a difference in childrearing ideas and practices between Japanese husbands and American husbands of Japanese wives. The two groups−Japanese-Japanese couples and American-Japanese couples -- employed different strategies of adjustment of childrearing ideas and practices. American husbands were much more likely to express their ideas about childrearing, and the Japanese wives more likely to adjust practices to accommodate their husband's ideas. When wives in Japanese-Japanese couples verbalized differences with their husband's childrearing ideas and practices, husbands most often adjusted their ideas towards their wife's ideas. However, in most cases, there was little adjustment of childrearing practices among Japanese-Japanese couples.

Keywords: adjustment, childrearing ideas and practices, strategy of adjustment, Japanese couples, American-Japanese couples


4. 障害児をもつ親の人格発達
  ―価値観の再構築とその要因―

白百合女子大学  目良秋子
白百合女子大学  柏木惠子

Parents' Personality Development Who Have a Handicapped Child
―The Reconstitution of Thinking and the Factor―

Shirayuri College  MERA, Akiko 
Shirayuri College  KASHIWAGI, Keiko 

 The purpose of this study is to explore the factor from which the handicapped child's parents derive the new value and the new life-style. As the result of the interview of the parents who have a handicapped child, it is clear that they try to reconstitute their thinking through the acceptance of their child's handicap. And they learn to have a broad view of things and take a flexible stand becoming a parent.

Key Words: Reconstitution of Thinking, Handicapped Child's Parent Development


5. 就学前児の社会的認知的発達に関する縦断的研究 (1)
  ―社会的場面における自己制御機能の発達―

文京女子大学     佐藤淑子
白百合女子大学   目良秋子
白百合女子大学   柏木惠子

A Longitudinal Study on the Social and Cognitive Development of Japanese Pre- school Children (1)
―Development of Self-regulation in Interpersonal Conflicts―

Bunkyo Women's University  SATO, Yoshiko
Shirayuri College         MERA, Akiko
Shirayuri College         KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 Based on the study of self-regulation on social development of pre-school children by Kashiwagi (1988), we conducted a longitudinal study of self-regulation of 22 pre-schoolers in interpersonal conflicts. The purpose of this study is to examine reasons why children regulate themselves in self-assertive and self-inhibitory situations. The analysis showed that children apply different reasons for regulating themselves depending on social situations, such as “interpersonal relationships”, “rules”, “authority”, “avoidance”, “alternatives”, “self-alter” etc. Children applied “interpersonal relationships” as the reason for regulating their intention and behavior for self-assertion more often than for self-inhibition. Also, comparison between group situation and dyadic situation revealed that children apply “interpersonal relationships” more often in group situation than in dyadic situation. Longitudinal data analysis displayed that same children tend to apply “interpersonal relationships” more often as they get older. In self-assertive situation, we also analyzed their anticipation of acceptance and reject by the peers. As they get older, more children respond with clear anticipation of such behavior not only in acceptance case but also in rejection case.

Key words: Self-Regulation (self-assertion, self-inhibition), social development, pre-school children, interpersonal conflicts


6. 高齢者の自己概念と生活満足度の関係

甲南女子大学   藤井美有
            梅本堯夫

The Relation Between Self-image and Life-satisfaction in Aged People

Konan Women's University  FUJII, Miu
                  UMEMOTO, Takao

 Three groups of aged people were examined on their self images and degree of life satisfaction.In the group one,there were 33 subjects ( 16 males and 18 females,70.00 years old in mean) who lived with their family.In the second group,there were 31subjects (4 males and 27 females,76.20 years old in mean) who lived alone.In the third group,there were 35 subjects (4 males and 31 females,79.10 years old in mean) who lived in institutions.
 Results showed that the self images and degree of life satisfaction of subjects lived with family and alone were better than that of subjects in institutions.There were significant relations between self images and degree of life satisfaction in the subjects lived with family and alone.

Keywords: Self-image,Life-satisfaction,Aged people


7. 芸術性の発達

梅本堯夫

Development of Skills and Appreciation Schema in Art and Music

UMEMOTO, Takao

 In the test battery of Binet type test, it is indicated that there are many elemental skills in artistic activities like line and circle drawing, and comparative judgment of beauty of two faces. Also scores of correct recognition of deviated tone in test melodies increases from 3rd graders to 7th grader. Thus artistic and musical activities share with other general mental activities in elemental level. But higher artistic and musical activities do not seem developing.


8. 2歳児の行動観察から見た他者の所有する情報理解

白百合女子大学  柿沼美紀

A Two-year Old's Understanding of Information Others Have
―A Study Based on Behavior Observation―

Shirayuri college  KAKINUMA, Miki

 In an attempt to search for a 'precursor of a fully fledged understanding of the representational mind (Lewis, & Mitchell, 1994), the author obserred the behavior of her 2-year-old son. The child's speech and nonverbal communication in daily life is analyzed in relation to his understanding of the ‘territory of information’ of others (Kamio, 1994). The child was, at times, able to correctly the information others have, and was capable of correcting others' false beliefs.
 In experimental situations, 2-year-olds generally fail false belief tasks. But the observation and the analysis by the author indicate that when the child is 1) familiar with the others, 2) highly motivated, and 3) participating in the situation, he is capable of estimating and referring to the information others have, and also capable oh indicating the false beliefs of the others.
 Observing and testing young children in natural settings could disclose aspects of development that are only observed much later in experimental settings.

Keywords: theory of mind, 2 year old, false belief, territory of information, home observation


9. 自己の状況論から捉えた相互協調的・相互独立的自己観

白百合女子大学  竹尾和子

The Interdependent and Independent View of Self In Terms of the Situational Model of Self

Shirayuri College  TAKEO, Kazuko

 Subject's responses to twenty-two ficticious situations were studied to find out the likelifood of those situations eliciting interdependent or independent action. Situations were devided into self-oriented situation and other-oriented situation. Either of them elicited both the interdependent and independent action. As compared to the other-oriented situation, the response to the self-oriented situation was more sensitive to its contextual appropriateness to the situation.

Keywords: the situational model of self, the interdependent view of self, independent view of self, self-oriented situation, other-oriented situation


10. 作文課題による目標構造と将来展望に関する研究
   ― 「目的を持って努力したこと」 の日米比較 (中間報告) ―

白百合女子大学     真島真里
Stanford University   Lauren Shapiro
文京女子大学      東  洋

A US-Japan Comparison of Structure of “Goal” and Future Time Perspective in University Student

Shirayuri College         MASHIMA, Mari
Stanford University       SHAPIRO, Lauren
Bunkyo Women's University   AZUMA, Hiroshi

 In the field of motivation theory, a goal is supposed to be defined in terms of a concrete achievement (e.g. McClelland, Atkinson), and future-orientedness has been emphasized as a fundamental feature of human motivation (e.g., Nuttin, Markus). In Japan, however, present-orientedness is seen more frequently (e.g., Shirai).
 In this study, we studied the goal structure of Japanese and American subjects. Subjects (60 students each) were asked, in an interview setting, to describe the conscious efforts they made in the near past (Task1).
 The main findings in Task1 are as follows. American students focus on the achievement and Japanese students focus on the process in Task1. American participants tended to highlight the result of their past efforts. Japanese participants, on the other hand, don't focus on the achievement. They tended to stress the attitude and emotions involved in their past efforts.

Key words : Structure of “goal”, Future time perspectives, US-Japan comparison study, University students


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