発達研究 Vol.12


1. ダウン症児を持つ母親の養育態度の調査研究 T
  ―研究計画と質問紙調査結果の単純集計―

お茶の水女子大学      品 川 玲 子
お茶の水女子大学      渡 辺 千 歳
国際基督教大学       荻 原 美 文
東洋英和女学院大学     藤 永   保
公文教育研究会       佐々木 丈 夫

A Survey of child rearing styles among mothers having children with Down's syndrome T
―Overall survey plan and the basic results of a questionnaire survey―

Ochanomizu University          SHINAGAWA, Reiko
Ochanomizu University          WATANABE, Chitose
International Christian University   OGIHARA, Mifumi
Toyoeiwa-Jogakuin University     FUJINAGA, Tamotsu
The Kumon Institute of Education   SASAKI, Takeo

 This is the first report of a series of studies on child rearing styles among mothers who have children with Down's syndrome. Two kinds of survey, one with a questionnaire and the other with interviews, were planned. Here only the former survey is discussed. The questionnaire consisted of the followings : (1) demographic information about the children, (2) the process of “Kokuchi” (doctor's informing of the fact that a child has Down's syndrome), (3) mothers' mental process and attitudes towards child's education after “Kokuchi”, (4) educational influences at home, (5) educational influences out of home or school, (6) the support from important people and environmental items around the mothers, and (7) mothers' present child rearing styles. The basic results of 138 returned questionnaires are reported.

Key words : children with Down's syndrome, mother-child relations, child rearing, early development


2. 数量概念の発達に関する縦断的研究(4)

国際基督教大学         荻 原 美 文
お茶の水女子大学       渡 辺 千 歳
国際基督教大学         吉 野 展 世
立教女子学院短期大学    権 藤 桂 子
東洋英和女学院大学      藤 永  保

A Longitudinal Study of Development of Child's Numerical Concept(4)

International Christian University   OGIHARA, Mifumi
Ochanomizu University          WATANABE, Chitose
International Christian University   YOSHINO, Nobuyo
St.Margaret's Junior College      GONDO, Keiko
Toyoeiwa-Jogakuin University     FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The purpose of this research is to clarify how infants acquire numerical concept or understanding and deal with such abstract matters. To accomplish the purpose, a longitudinal study from children's infantile stage as early as possible is adopted in this research. The research is based on experimental observations and reported data from the child's mother, and focused not merely on numerical matters but on various fields of developmental change.
 Concerning the recent tendency that many children are exposed to early educational devices from their infantile stage, subjects in this study are selected from infants who are under such education, e.g. learning in a K-system class in Tokyo. These subjects enable us to follow the acquiring process of numerical concept or understanding of infants under plentiful intellectual stimuli.
 Three children's developmental changes (from February, 1995 to March, 1997) are presented here and this is the last report of the data in this research.

Key words : numerical concept or understanding, longitudinal study, cognitive development, infants, early education


3. 数学的英才児の課題解決(XIV)
  ―7年後の追跡調査―

お茶の水女子大学      渡 辺 千 歳
東洋英和女学院大学     藤 永   保 
           
Problem solving in the children who have high performance on mathematics(14)
―A follow-up study of a mathematically gifted child seven years later―

Ochanomizu University       WATANABE, Chitose
Toyoeiwa-Jogakuin University  FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 We have followed up the case who showed very high performance in K-system for example, to be able to solve the algebraic equation even if she was in a preschool year when we observed her for the first time. When she was 9 years old the second interview was carried out. Then some of her memories of mathematical processing were well retained, but others remained incomplete. After the second interview, she had been in the U.S. and Canada and learned in the schools there for about six years. She came back to Japan in 1996.
 This is the third report in the series of this case study. She becomes 16 years old, a prefectural senior high school student. She is at the top of her class. She is interested in studying French and mathematics. She likes French best of all subjects. She has many friends who came from foreign countries, and enjoys her school life.

Key words : case study, effects of early education, gifted children, longitudinal follow up study


4. 女子青年の対人場面における自己主張

文京女子大学      佐 藤 淑 子

Assertiveness of Japanese female college students in interpersonal relationship

Bunkyo Women's University   SATO, Yoshiko

 The purpose of this study was to examine the development of self-assertion in interpersonal relationships of Japanese female college students. Historically, Japanese people regard self-assertion associated with aggression, and to express one's intentions and will explicitly is not necessarily considered to be a pro-social behavior. One hundred and twenty-nine female college students completed the self-assertion, individual and social orientedness, parent's discipline concerning sex roles, and evaluation of Japanese interpersonal strategies scales. The results showed that 1) Positive correlation between self-assertion and individual orientedness, 2) Negative correlation between self-assertion of female students and discipline by their mother who emphasized sex role differentiation in child-rearing, 3) Negative correlation between self-assertion and high evaluation of Japanese interpersonal strategies such as vague and indirect expression.
 Students felt frustrated when they had asserted themselves, and feared that self-assertive behavior might have negative effects on interpersonal relationships in the future. From the above results, it can be inferred that Japanese young women still regard self-assertive behavior in interpersonal relationships negatively.

Key words : self-assertion, interpersonal relationships, sex-role, individual and social orientedness, Japanese female college students


5. 日米結婚における夫婦間の調整課題
  ―性役割観を中心に―

白百合女子大学     矢 吹 理 恵
                 
Adjustment Strategies for Reconciling Differences in Sex Role Attitudes in Japanese-American and Japanese-Japanese Couples

Shirayuri College  YABUKI, Rie

 The purpose of this study is to obtain qualitative information which would provide a basis for hypotheses which explain differences in strategies for adjustment of sex role attitudes in Japanese husband-Japanese wife couples and American husband-Japanese wife couples. A preparatory questionnaire was administered to establish topics for an in−depth interview of 16 Couples. The informants are Japanese wives−eight with American husbands and eight with Japanese husbands. Informants were grouped by demographic factors such as age and the wife's employment status. This study found a difference in sex role attitudes between Japanese husbands and American husbands of Japanese wives. The two groups−Japanese-Japanese couples and American-Japanese couples− employed different strategies of adjustment of sex role attitudes. American-Japanese couples all explicitly discussed their differences. Japanese-Japanese couples generally did not explicitly discuss these differences. However, Japanese-Japanese couples with wives working outside the home did explicitly discuss differences.

Key words : adjustment, sex role attitudes, strategy of adjustment, Japanese couples, American-Japanese couples


6. 父親と母親のしつけ方略
  ―育児観・子ども観と父親の育児参加から―

白百合女子大学         目 良 秋 子

The Father And Mother's Control Strategy
―The relationship with parental feeling and cognition about children and child-care, and father's involvement with child-care―

Shirayuri College  MERA, Akiko

 The purpose of this study is to clear the father and mother's control strategy and the relationship with parental feeling and cognition about children and child−care and them. The second, is to consider whether fathers who control their children like mothers have same feeling and cognition about children and child−care as mothers or not. The main finding is fathers' feeling and cognition about children and child−care who control their children like mothers are similar to mothers and they involve more with child−care than other fathers. This suggests that a type of control strategy might derive from the experience as primary caretakers.

Key words : parental control strategy, fathers' involvement with child−care, parental feeling and cognition about child−care and children


7. 親意識の形成過程に関する縦断研究

聖母女子短期大学    小野寺 敦 子
白百合女子大学      柏 木 惠 子

Longitudinal study on the process of becoming a parent

Seibo Woman's Junior College  ONODERA, Atsuko
Shirayuri College           KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The longitudinal study was conducted to examine the changing process of becoming parents. Firstly, 211 couples (7-8 months pregnant wives and their husbands) joined the research. In the second research, 135 couples (7-8months after becoming parents) and in the third research., 85 couples (2 years after) returned the questionnaires. Male social self increased largely but father's self did not change much after becoming a parent. On the contrary, female social self decreased with the significant increase of mother's self after becoming a parent. The feelings toward becoming parents differed between males and females. Males felt much stronger confidence in becoming good fathers and felt the stronger responsibility but females felt much more restricted feeling while they were pregnant and also rearing their child. The couple relationships also changed with the development of their child. While they didn't have a child, they felt much closer feelings each other, especially wives felt lonely during husbands' absence. But this wife's feeling showed the change after they became mothers.

Key words : Longitudinal study, Social self, Process of becoming a parent, Husband-Wife relationship,


8. 父親の養育行動と子どもの性役割特性との日韓比較研究

白百合女子大学    姜   蘭 惠

Children's Gender-Role Trait and Fathers' Child-Rearing Behavior :
A Comparison Between Japan and Korea

Shirayuri College   KANG, Ran Hye

 This study compared the extent of father's child−rearing behavior perceived by their children which consisted of qualitative and quantitative behavior and child gender−role traits between Japan and Korea. The research sample consist, in Tokyo, of 215 5-6 th grade Japanese children and their fathers consist, in Seoul, of 220 4-5 th grade Korean children and their fathers.
 The data were analyzed through correlation analyses and regression analyses.
 The main results were as follows : 1) Father's educational level were significantly related to father's affectionate child rearing behavior in both countries. However, in Korea, father's income, maternal employment−non employment and sex of a child are significantly related to father's affectionate child rearing behavior. 2) Korean fathers were found more affectionate child rearing behavior than Japanese fathers. On the other hand, Japanese father were found more father's involvement than Korean fathers. 3) In Japan, masculine scores of boys are greatly affected by father's involvement whereas feminine scores of Japanese girls were not affected by fathers' involvement.
 In Korea, masculine scores of boys are greatly affected by father's affectionate child rearing. Feminine scores of girls are, on the contrary greatly affected by father's involvement. 4) Father's education level, occupation do not affect children's gender-role traits.

Key words : father's affectionate child rearing behavior, father's involvement, children's gender-role, cross-cultural study


9. 大学生と中学生における理想自己の比較と検討

甲南女子大学     石 原 知 己
甲南女子大学     梅 本 堯 夫

A comparative study of factorial structures of ideal self and possible negative self in junior high school pupils and college students

Konan Women's University   ISHIHARA, Tomoki
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 Junior high school pupils (50 boys and 51 girls ; 14 years old in average) and university students (55 boys and 59 girls ; 20.7 years old in average) were required to rate on 78 five point scales (on 39 positive and 39 negative items) about their ideal self which they wished to be and possible negative self which they were afraid of to be. Twofactors were extracted by factor analysis on the data of positive self for total sample. The first factor represented their ideal image of matured personality, while the second factor represented their image of social success. There were interaction of age and factor scores. The weight of the first factor was significantly larger for the older group than younger group, while there were no difference in factor scores of the second factor.

Key words : Ideal self, adolescence


10. 幼児の対人緊張場面での表出について

甲南女子大学      加 納 真 美
聖心女子大学      川 畑 さつき

Development of expression in preschool children :
―Developmental changes in the effects of being “looked at”―

Konan Women's University     KANO, Mami
University of the Sacred Heart   KAWABATA, Satsuki

 In order to examine how public or non-public situation makes difference in expressive behaviors of children, they were observed under the following three situations : (A) speaking about their name and age to experimenter for their experiments with cameraman, teacher and classmates who are apparently indifferent (non-public situation), (B) speaking about their name and ago to many people being monitored by a video camera and observed by the experimenter, cameraman, teachers and classmates (public situation), (C) singing a song in front of many people being monitored by a video camera and observed by the experimenters, cameraman, teachers and classmates (public situation). Subjects were 53 preschoolers. The measures were content and strength of emotional expressions and physical actions. Emotional expressions and physical actions reproduced on video display were rated by two trained observers.
 Results showed that expressions of bashfulness, happiness, restlessness and tension were more frequent in the public situation B and C than the non-public situation A. Younger children indicated a stiff body, looking around, twisting and restless hands in the public situation B and C. Older children indicated smiling and laughing even in the non-public situation A.
 These findings suggests that children become public self-awareness at about 4 years old. The study shows that children's emotional expressions weren't controlled in situation A, but their emotional expressions and physical actions were controlled by display rules in situation B and C.

Key words : emotional expression, being looked at, expressive behaviors, public self-awareness, self-conscious emotions


11. 道徳判断の日米比較研究の視座

白百合女子大学     東     洋

Contexts and Perspectives of US-Japan Cross Cultural Study of Moral Judgment

Shirayuri College   AZUMA, Hiroshi

 The present articles overviews three studies on moral judgement and narrative production being carried out by the group headed by the author, and clarifies the interrelatedness among three studies. Further, a theory of cultural development based on cultural conflict within individual members is proposed and discussed.

Key words : moral, context script, cross-cultural


12. 自己の状況依存性 
  ―自他類似性スキーマテストと自己特性スキーマテストとの比較―

白百合女子大学    竹 尾 和 子

The Situational Model of Self-Scheme
―the Comparison between Self-Other Similarity Scheme Test and Self-Uniqueness Scheme Test―

Shirayuri College   TAKEO, Kazuko

 This study was planned to examine the situational model of self-scheme. Two self-scheme tests were used : Self-Other Similarity Scheme Test and Self-Uniqueness Scheme Test. All subjects participated in both self-scheme tests. The finding was that there was systematic differences between the self-scheme activated by Self-Other Similarity Scheme Test and that activated by Self-Uniqueness Scheme Test. This result reflects not only the interdependency between self-scheme and test situation but also the importance of the situational model of self.

Key words : self, situational model, Self-Other Similarity Scheme Test, Self Uniqueness Scheme Test


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