発達研究 Vol.11


1. 初期記憶の研究 (4)
  性差について(続)

国際基督教大学      藤 永   保

A Study of the first memory (4) 
Sex differences of the first memory ―continued―

International Christian University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 This is the fourth report of a series of studies on the first memory. One of the main results of the 3rd report is that the so-called sex differences of memorizing abilities between male and female students seem to be small. However, a relatively small sample had this conclusion proved, so a larger sample is necessary to revalidate this result. This study, using 63 female students of the same university of the 34 male students in the 3rd report, is to further clarify above problem.
 Its answer of this report is affirmative. The female students' average age of the first memory is clearly earlier than the male students.
 One more aim of this study is to further confirm the availability and possibility of the drawing method studying the first memory. It is reascertained and various interesting result are found.

Key words : the first memory, drawing method, sex differences, objectified self, case study


2. 数量概念の発達に関する縦断的研究 (3)

国際基督教大学       荻 原 美 文
お茶の水女子大学      渡 辺 千 歳
国際基督教大学       藤 永   保

A Longitudinal Study of Development of Child's Numerical Concept (3)

International Christian University   OGIHARA, Mifumi
Ochanomizu University          WATANABE, Chitose
International Christian University    FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The purpose of this research is to clarify how infants acquire numerical concept or understanding and deal with such abstract matters. To accomplish the purpose, a longitudinal study from children's infantile stage as early as possible is adopted in this research. The research is based on experimental observations and reports from the child's mother, and focused not merely on numerical matters but on various fields of developmental change.
 Concerning recent tendency that many children are exposed to early education program from their infantile stage, subjects in this study are selected from infants who are under such education, e.g. learning in a K-system class in Tokyo. These subjects enable us to follow acquiring process of numerical concept or understanding of infants under plentiful intellectual stimuli.
 Four children's developmental changes from February, 1994 to January, 1995 are presented in this third report.

Key words : numerical concept or understanding, longitudinal study, cognitive development, infants, early education.


3. ダウン症児の知的教育に関する予備的調査
  ―学校外教育の指導者に対する質問紙調査―

お茶の水女子大学       渡 辺 千 歳
国際基督教大学        荻 原 美 文
国際基督教大学        藤 永   保 
           
A preliminary questionnaire survey about instructing methods to children with Down syndrome

Ochanomizu University          WATANABE, Chitose
International Christian University   OGIHARA, Mifumi
International Christian University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 How do the teachers of the K-system private tutoring school accepting the retarded instruct the children with Down syndrome? We asked them some questions about the nature of learning and intelligence of the children with Down syndrome. We got many observations on teaching reading, writing and arithmetic. They believe that it is easy to teach to the children with Down syndrome reading letters and numbers. Writing is not always easy for them, because they are so floppy that they cannot preserve the necessary arousal level to learn for a long time. They are almost difficult that they acquire the numerical concepts and understand addition and subtraction. Abstract thinking in arithmetic at the first or the second grade is also difficult for them.

Key words : children with Down syndrome early learning reading, writing and arithmetic option survey


4. 幼児の言語情報認知における大脳半球機能差
  ―両耳分離聴テストによる検討―

甲南女子大学      三 雲 真理子
甲南女子大学      仲 村 恵理子
甲南女子大学      西 中   司

Laterality difference for language functions in preschool children:
An approach with a Dichotic Listening Test

Konan Women's University   MIKUMO, Mariko
Konan Women's University   NAKAMURA, Eriko
Konan Women's University   NISHINAKA, Tsukasa

 The purpose of this study was to investigate the development of lateralization of language functions and the effect of attentional bias, in terms of given instruction, upon the laterality effect. Asymmetry of auditory perception was taken as an index of the lateralization, which was measured by mean of Dichotic Listening Test (DLT). A total of 48 right handed children aged 4 to 6 [divided into four groups of the younger (mean age : boys, 5:01 ; girls, 5:01) and the elder (mean age : boys, 6:03 ; girls, 6:00)] were tested on a verbal dichotic listening task. Subjects heard pairs of two-syllable meaningful words under two conditions : (a) free attention and to report at least one item ; (b) biased attention to one specified ear and to report only the item heard at that ear. The results revealed that the right ear advantage (REA) was shown in both age groups independently of attentional conditions, and that the laterality indices in both age groups showed no significant increase. The degree of REA showed no significant sex differences in both age groups. These findings suggested that lateralization of the left hemisphere in language functions had appeared by the age of 4 years, and it did not change over 4 to 6-year children.

Key words : Dichotic Listening Test (DLT), right ear advantage (REA), laterality, hemispheric asymmetry, attentional bias


5. はずかしさの発達的研究 (2)
  ―質的分析―

甲南女子大学      加 納 真 美
甲南女子大学      梅 本 堯 夫  
 
Development of “HAZUKASISA”(2)
―qualitative analysis―

Konan Women's University     KANO, Mami
Konan Women's University     UMEMOTO, Takao

 In Japanese, “HAZUKASII” includes various meanings of shy, embarrassed, bashful and ashamed. Different meanings of “HAZUKASII”, are comprehended depending on the situation. In this study the developmental process of self-conscious emotions, especially shyness or embarrassment, is analysed qualitatively.
 Lewis,M.et al (1989) demonstrated that embarrassment did not occur in children who did not show self-recognition in the mirror. In this study, they observed four different conditions to investigate whether children seem to feel “embarrassment”. Though Lewis (1993,1994,1995) presented a model of the emergence of self-conscious emotions, the situation of self-conscious emotions have been not specified in Japanese.
 This research investigated in what situations children seem to feel “HAZUKASII”, when they begin to feel it and how often they feel “HAZUKASII” and also how it is noticed that children seem to feel “HAZUKASII”.
 One hundred eighty-one Japanese mothers with children between 3 years old and 7 years old were surveyed by questionnaire. Data of 199 children (97 boys, 102 girls) were analysed.
 Two situations of “HAZUKASISA” were specified, “HAZUKASISA” include “embarrassment” and “shame”. Shame is unpleasant feeling, while situations of shame are negative and it is not important who is the observer. Embarrassment is ambivalent feeling, while situations of embarrassment are positive and neutral and it is important who is the observer. The physical actions accompanying shame includes a stiff body, looking down and a frozen of the facial expression. On the other hand, the physical actions accompanying embarrassment includes a smiling and a laughing.

Key words : self-conscious emotions, embarrassment, shame, “HAZUKASISA” in Japanese 


6. 学習意欲測定のための質問紙検査の開発

白百合女子大学           東     洋
白百合女子大学           真 島 真 理
白百合女子大学           庄 司 亜 弓
発達科学研究教育センター    塩 川 英 男

Measurement of motivation to learn : Development of a questionnaire form

Shirayuri College     AZUMA, Hiroshi
Shirayuri College     MASHIMA, Mari
Shirayuri College     SHOUJI, Ayumi
Center of Developmental Education and Research
                SHIOKAWA, Hideo

 The purpose of this study is to compile self-report items which are predictive of student's habitual behavior related to the common sense concept of motivation to learn. The criterion of the common sense motivation to learn was the judgment by the teacher who knows the student closely.
 Items were selected from various tests of motivation and self-efficacy. From this item pool, much smaller number of items was selected as the prospective indicators of the motivation to learn. For this selection of items the correlation of each item response with the evaluation by the teachers was used. Teachers were from Kumon schools where individualized teaching was practiced. The evaluation was made as to the observed “motivation to learn” and “satisfaction and adjustment”. Items were divided into two kinds, those which have correlated highly with the “motivation to learn” and those correlated highly with the “satisfaction and adjustment”. Two scales thus developed had significant multiple correlations with respective criteria. Much simpler weighting developed for easy scoring had the validity of .50 for “motivation to learn” and .34 for “satisfaction and adjustment”.

Key words : School achievement, Measurement of motivation to learn, Satisfaction and adjustment


7. 学習意欲と原因帰属に関する国際比較研究 (2)

白百合女子大学          唐 澤 真 弓
Max-Planck Institute in Berlin   Todd D.Little
白百合女子大学          宮 下 孝 広
白百合女子大学           真 島 真 理
白百合女子大学          東     洋

Japanese (Tokyo) Children's Beliefs About School Performance And Actual School Performance

Shirayuri College           KARASAWA, Mayumi
Max-Planck Institute in Berlin   Todd D.Little
Shirayuri College           MIYASHITA, Takahiro
Shirayuri College           MASHIMA, Mari
Shirayuri College           AZUMA, Hiroshi

 In this paper we examined Japanese children's (grades 2 - 6, n = 817) action-related conceptions about school performance and compared them with comparable data available in other socio-cultural contexts (German, Russian, and American cultures). We used the Control, Agency, and Means-ends Interview (CAMI) to assess the Japanese children's self-related agency beliefs, their general control expectancy, and their causality-related means-ends beliefs. The CAMI, which is based on an action-theory view of performance beliefs, had shown strong cross-cultural validity, but it had not yet been validated with Japanese children. Consistent with our expectations, we found many inter-cultural similarities in the CAMI constructs which are likely related to commonalities in teaching formats and conceptions about academic performance associated with formal schooling. At the same time, however, we found differences in the self-related agency beliefs that appear to stem from cultural influences that are specific to Japanese society. Most notably, we found that the role of luck and the relations between effort and ability evinced unique patterns in Japan.

Key words : Cross-cultural comparison, school performance, agency belief, control belief, means-ends belief


8. 道徳的挿話における前後文脈産出
  ―内容分析の方法と結果の概説―

白百合女子大学     真 島 真 理
スタンフォード大学      Christine Yeh
白百合女子大学     唐 澤 真 弓
白百合女子大学     東     洋

A U.S.-JAPAN comparison of the process of completing imperfect moral episodes
―The result of content analysis compared―

Shirayuri College  MASHIMA, Mari
Stanford University Christine Yeh
Shirayuri College  KARASAWA, Mayumi
Shirayuri College  AZUMA, Hiroshi

 As we have reported before (M.Mashima, M.Karasawa, C.Yeh, H.Azuma 1994, A U.S.-JAPAN comparison in completing imperfect moral episodes, Human Developmental Research CODER Annual Report vol.10), the present study compares the response of Japanese and American students in completing imperfect moral episodes by supplying antecedent and consequential contexts. Attention is given to the content of the produced story, the bases for judging the acceptability of the conduct of the protagonist, as influenced by the respective culture. By this method we try to capture the influence of culture upon the structural characterists of the logic of moral, which is not accessible by Kohlbergean judgment method of presenting completed full episode. In this article, we discuss the details of the proposed procedure in doing cross-cultural study.

Key words : Moral episodes, U.S.-JAPAN comparison, Story completion


9. いじめ場面での第三者の対処に関する研究

白百合女子大学       野 本 智 子
白百合女子大学       岡 崎 奈美子
聖 母 病 院        野 村 邦 子

Study on the bulling―Behavior of the bystanders

Shirayuri College     NOMOTO, Tomoko
Shirayuri College     OKAZAKI, Namiko
Holy Mother Hospital  NOMURA, Kuniko

 The bulling is propagating and becoming a serious social problem now in Japan. This study is focusing on behaviors of bystanders deriving from questionnaire from subjects of 89 junior high school, high school and university students. Against three types of victims―obesity, honor and selfishness and five categories of assailants number 1, 2〜3, 4〜5, 7〜8 and half of bystanders, one option from three behaviors―assault or disregard or arbitration was requested. Also advice from mother and its discrepancy from the behavior were examined. Results of questionnaire are following : 1. The disregard prevails more than 50% for every victims type. 2. As to mother's advice, the arbitration is preferably expected, though 70% or more admit mother's acknowledgement of the disregard. 3. Only in the case of victim's unselfishness, the disregard decreases while the assault and the arbitration increase when assailants surpass 50% of all members. The importance among victims type, assailant's number and bystander's behavior is exemplified. There remains a problem in the expectation to mother's preference to stay as a disregarding bystander.

Key words : bulling, bystanders, questionnaire


10. 女性における生活の満足感   
   ―既婚・有子女性の場合―

白百合女子大学         岡 崎 奈美子
白百合女子大学         柏 木 惠 子

The Satisfaction with life for married mother

Shirayuri College   OKAZAKI, Namiko
Shirayuri College   KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 In this study, we have studied 111 married mothers as to their satisfaction with life and personality traits. These scores were correlated with the professional status and age levels of the subjects. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their working status (employed, not employed) and two age levels (below 40, over 50). As to the satisfaction with life, no significant difference was found among four groups. The factor of “assertiveness and activity” correlated positively with satisfaction with life in all four groups. Subjects who employed and over 50 showed the highest score in the factor “assertiveness and activity”. We have tentatively hypothesized that the satisfaction with life is supported by the “assertiveness and activity” which in turn is enhanced by continuation on the job.

Key words : satisfaction with life, married mother, factor analysis, assertiveness and activity.


11. 専業主婦における生活感情
   ―夫は妻の生活感情をどのように推察しているか―

白百合女子大学   永 久 ひさ子

LIFE-FEELINGS IN HOUSE-WIVES
―Discrepancies between wife's life-feelings and husband's inference―

Shirayuri College  NAGAHISA, Hisako

 The present study were to analyze and discuss the life-feelings in house-wives with the relation of wife's life-feelings and husband's inference. The subjects, 54 house-wives and their husbands, 52 working wives and 38 their husbands, were asked through the questionnaires. Husbands were asked to infer the life-feelings in their wives.
 The study indicated that house-wives group showed significant discrepancies in three areas, negative feelings toward life, positive feelings toward life, negative feelings toward child.
 On the other hand, working wives group showed the significant discrepancies in negative feelings toward husband and negative feelings toward life support.
 These discrepancies indicated that husband infer the life-feelings in wife from his view points of sex-roll. That means, husband of house-wife infers that wife is satisfies and has little fear toward life by keeping house and rearing child. On the other hand, husband with working-wives inferred that wife may not has complains toward husband and life support because of his self-confidence being helpful in house keeping and rearing child.

Key words : House-wife, Life-feelings, Husband's inference, Sex-roll


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