発達研究 Vol.10


1. 初期記憶の研究 (3) 性差について

国際基督教大学     藤 永   保

A study of the first memory (3)
Sex differences of the first memory

International Christian University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 This is the third report of a series of studies on the first memory. They say that the women's memorizing ability is far superior to the men's one. Is this idea true or not, especially on the first memory? In the second report, it was shown that the drawing method of the first memory had a great possibility to study the genuineness of the first memoryto utilize the phenomenon of objectified self, as to be called. However, this phenomenon was discovered only in the female subjects,so it must be checked in the male subjects too.
 The results of this study ascertain the possibility of this method again in the male subjects. But the differences of memorizing abilities between women and men seem to be small.

Key words : the first memory, drawing method, sex difference, objectified self, memory image


2. 数量概念の発達に関する縦断的研究 (2)

お茶の水女子大学     渡 辺 千 歳
国際基督教大学      荻 原 美 文
国際基督教大学      藤 永   保

A Longitudinal Study of Development of Child's Numerical Concept (2)

Ochanomizu University          WATANABE, Chitose
International Christian University   OGIHARA, Mifumi
International Christian University   FUJINAGA, Tamotsu

 The purpose of this research is to clarify how infants acquire numerical concept or understanding and deal with such abstract matters. To accomplish the purpose, a longitudinal study from children's infantile stage as early as possible is adopted in this research. The research is based on experimental observations and reports from the child's mother, and focused not merely on numerical matters but on various fields of developmental change.
 Concerning recent tendency that many children are exposed to education from their infantile stage, subjects in this study are selected from infants who are under such education, e. g. learning in a K-system class. These subjects enable us to follow numerical concept or understanding acquiring process of infants under plentiful intellectual stimuli.
 Three children's developmental changes from February, 1993 to January, 1994 are presented in this second report.

Key words : numerical concept or understanding, longitudinal study, cognitive development, infants, early education


3. 英国在住の日本人就学前幼児の異文化学習
  ―社会的場面における「自己制御」の発達の日英比較 V―
   母親の質問紙の分析結果

ロンドン大学     佐 藤 淑 子 

Culture learning of Japanese pre-school children staying in England
―Comparative study on the development of ‘self-regulation’ between England and Japan,V―
Analysis of Mother's Questionnaire

University of London    SATO, Yoshiko

 Subjects : English mothers of pre-school children in London (‘EL’, n=48), Japanese mothers of pre-school children in London (‘JL’, n=67), Japanese mothers of pre-school children in Tokyo (‘JT’, n=71).
 Method : A multiple choice questionnaire for mothers of the above three sample groups : frequency, evaluation and feedback concerning self-assertive and self-inhibitory behavior of their children.
 Results :
(1) Comparison of MSASCORE (self-assertion score of child rated by his/her mother) and MSISCORE (self-inhibition score of child rated by his/her mother) among ‘EL’,‘JL’‘JT’. (a). ‘EL’ scored significantly higher (at 5% level) in MSASCORE than ‘JL’ and ‘JT’. (b). No difference in MSISCORE among three sample groups.
(2) Comparison of subdimensions of self-assertion (three subdimensions : <denial-strong assertion>, <participation in play>, <originality and activeness>) and self-inhibition (four subdimensions : <compliance to rules>, <persistence>, <frustration tolerance>, <capacity to delay>). (a). As for self-assertion, ‘EL’ scored significantly higher (at 5% level) than ‘JL’ and ‘JT’ in <originality and activeness>. (b). As for self-inhibition, ‘JL’ scored significantly higher than ‘EL’ and ‘JT’ in <capacity to delay>.
(3) By the combination of score of evaluation and feedback concerning children's behavior, mothers were divided into the following four types : noninterference type, discipline type, accepting type, reinforcement type. (a). There were more reinforcement type and less noninterference type among ‘EL’ compared to ‘JL’ and ‘JT’. (b). ‘JL’ and ‘JT’ were evenly distributed among the above four types.

Key words : Culture learning, self-regulation (self-assertion, self-inhibition), pre-school children, social development, comparative study (England-Japan)


4. はずかしさの発達的研究
  ―質的分析−

甲南女子大学       加 納 真 美
甲南女子大学       梅 本 堯 夫

Development of “HAZUKASISA”
―qualitative analysis―

Konan Women's University   KANO, Mami
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 In Japanese, “HAZUKASII” includes various meanings of shy, embarrassed, bashful and ashamed. Different meanings of “HAZUKASII” are comprehended depending on the situation. If one says only, “I feel HAZUKASII”, we can not understand his feeling. More information about his situation is needed to recognize his feelings. In this study the developmental process of shyness or embarrassment is analysed qualitatively.
 In Minamiyama's research (1987), Japanese mothers were asked whether her child seemed to feel “HAZUKASII” or not. Though the result was that 60% of Japanese children  begin to feel “HAZUKASII” around 1 year of age, the situation of “HAZUKASII” were not specified.
 This research investigated in what situations children seem to feel “HAZUKASII”, when they begin to feel it and how often they feel “HAZUKASII”.
 Two hundred twenty one Japanese mothers with children between 6 months and 7 years old were surveyed by questionnaire. Data of 282 children (147 boys, 135 girls) were analysed.
 Eight situations of “HAZUKASISA” were specified and categorized by the method of the principal component analysis. Though mothers reported that children begin to feel “HAZUKASII” from 1 year of age, the situations in which they feel “HAZUKASII” were an early-developing shyness (=a fearful shyness) or bashfulness. Children over 3 years old begin to feel embarrassed or late-developing shyness or shame, and have a public self-consciousness.

Key words : shy, embarrassed, ashamed, bashful, “HAZUKASISA” in Japanese.


5. 失敗行動に対する自己報告の検討
  ―異なる年齢の女性被験者群の比較―

甲南女子大学      山 田 尚 子
甲南女子大学      梅 本 堯 夫  

Examination of Self-Reported Failure Behaviors
―Comparison between Female Groups in Different Ages―

Konan Women's University   YAMADA, Naoko
Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 Self-reported failure behaviors may not reflect actual behavior, because the answers can be affected by some factors such as response bias and social beliefs. In a series of research, female students have reported more frequent failure behaviors on the CFQ (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire) than other groups. This study aimed to examine the reliability of their self-reported failures. Subjects are females in different ages and social situations ; junior college students, university students, housewives, and office workers. They were given CFQ and CFO (CFQ-for-others), or they were given CFQ and a 61 word list, and asked to answer how well the words represented their usual behaviors.
 The results show that university students regard failure proneness as being easygoing, while elder subjects regard it as incompetence. These results suggest that age differences on CFQ scores maybe influenced by such different beliefs.

Key words : failure behavior, self-report questionnaire, CFQ, age differences


6. 道徳的挿話における前後文脈産出
  ―日米比較研究―

白百合女子大学      真 島 真 理
白百合女子大学      唐 澤 真 弓
スタンフォード大学        Christine Yeh
白百合女子大学      東     洋

A U.S.-JAPAN comparison in completing imperfect moral episodes

Shirayuri College     MASHIMA, Mari
Shirayuri College     KARASAWA, Mayumi
Stanford University   Christine Yeh
Shirayuri College     AZUMA, Hiroshi

 The present study compares the response of Japanese and American students in completing imperfect moral episodes by supplying antecedent and consequential contexts. Attention is given to the content of the produced story, the bases for judging the acceptability of the conduct of the protagonist, as influenced by the respective culture. By this method we try to capture the influence of culture upon the structural characterists of the logic of moral, which is not accessible by Kohlbergean judgement method of presenting completed full episode.
 In this article, as the first step of the analysis, the way in which the subjects judge the conduct of the protagonist was studied. In particular the cultural differences in the production and judgement were analysed.
 Imperfect moral episodes :
 1 Susan lies to her mother about a recent grade on an important final exam.
 2 Jim's friends all go out to lunch and do not invite him.
 3 Sam, who is supposed to meet Allison at the restaurant at 8pm does not show up.
 4 Some of Julie's friends are talking about her behind her back.
 5 At a formal party everyone was dressed appropriately except for Sandy.
 6 Jeff makes a fist and hits his friend Don in the jaw.
 Japanese tended to give severe judgement to the episodes which involve threats to symbiotic relationships (Story4). Americans were more severe in judging direct threats to the welfare and right of the individual (Story6).

Key words : Imperfect moral episodes, Sympathy, Threats to the right of the individual, U.S.-JAPAN comparison


7. 「なりたい自分」像のライフコース的変動(2)
  ―日米比較研究―

白百合女子大学      唐 澤 真 弓
東京カリタスの家      小 島 明 子
白百合女子大学      東     洋

The Life Course Development of Ideal Selves Subjects in Japan and the United States

Shirayuri College     KARASAWA, Mayumi
Tokyo Caritas House   KOJIMA, Akiko
Shirayuri College     AZUMA, Hiroshi

 In the present study the stability and changes of ideal selves were examined over the life course in Japan and the United States. Through socialization cultural values are internalized to make images of ideal selves. It was hypothesized that in the United States ideal selves emphasize individual abilities while Japanese tend to emphasize affectionate interpersonal selves. 1842 Japanese and 1562 Americans respondents, from 9 through 92 years old, were asked to choose from 20 items those that they thought were important in defining their ideal selves. All subjects were divided 6 groups according to their age. The data were analyzed for each items. Those supported the above hypothesis. These findings were discussed in terms of cultural issues and developmental trend.

Key words : life-course, cross-cultural study, ideal selves, cultural values


8. これからの女性の生き方についての発達的考察
  ―既婚女性を中心に考える―

白百合女子大学     岡 崎 奈美子
白百合女子大学     柏 木 惠 子

The Developmental Study of Young Women's Life Style
―Focused on married women―

Shirayuri College   OKAZAKI, Namiko
Shirayuri College   KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The purpose of this study was to examine the life style of young women from the developmental viewpoint. We previously examined the professional achievement of over fifty years women in relation to their environmental factors, and we also examined sex roles and self-esteem compared to those of housewives'. One of our findings of this study was that there was no difference about self-esteem between women who had professions and housewives. We examined the backgrounds for self-esteem and self-efficacy for young housewives, who had 0-6year children. The main findings were as follows.
 1) Housewives had self-efficacy based on their child rearings.
 2) Housewives thought their simple character as the base for their high self-esteem. These results suggest us that housewives would be others-oriented.
 However the current social phenomina, such as increase of the number of the divorce of oldly-married couples, decrease of the number of children, and long life etc., would reflect emergence of new life style among Japanese women. Under the situations, identity established as “private self” and “future perspectives” would be surely required for women.

Key words : woman, life style, private self, future perspective, self-esteem, self-efficacy


9. 「親となること」による発達 
  ―職業と学歴はどう関係しているか―

東京女子大学       若 松 素 子
白百合女子大学     柏 木 惠 子

Personality development by “Becoming a Parent”
―occupational and educational factors―

Tokyo Woman's Christian University   WAKAMATSU, Motoko
Shirayuri College               KASHIWAGI, Keiko

 The purpose of the study was to examine the influences of occupational and educational factors upon personality development by “becoming a parent”, parental feelings for child and attitudes towards sex-roles. Fathers were divided into three groups according to their occupation ; self-employed, employed by company, and worker of non-business organization.
 Mothers were divided into two groups ; non-employed and full-time employed. They were also classified according to their educational levels.
 The followings were main findings : Personality development or changes by “becoming a parent” were significantly observed in the lower-educated parents compared to the highly-educated parents. In paticular, lower educated mothers without occupation (namely full-time mothers) recognized their personality development caused by child-care and “becoming a parent”. Feelings for child and attitudes towards sex-roles were also related to parent's educational level, the type of father's occupation and mother's occupation. In higher mother's educational level, mothers tended to recognize their children as independent others not as “part of their own body”.
 Progressive attitudes claiming equal rights for both sexes were significantly forward among highly-educated parents, especially in the couples whose wives had full-time occupation.

Key words : parent development, parental role, sex roles


10. Children's knowledge about song

Konan Women's University   UMEMOTO, Takao

 Development of the concept of song in children was studied from the singing performance of 58 children from 5 years old to 10 years and 7 months old under a instruction for improvised singing on given text. Three short sentences with different emotional meaning (pleasant, sad and neutral) were given. From the analysis of their performance, it was concluded that children at first attended to rhythmic aspect of song, and then to pitch level and interval range of melody. Emotional expressiveness of melody was cared only by older children.

Key words : song, improvisation, cognitive development, rhythm


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